OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 1 — Jan. 2, 2012
  • pp: 283–290

Non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging at null source-detector separation

M. Mazurenka, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and R. Macdonald  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 1, pp. 283-290 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1955 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report results of the proof-of-principle tests of a novel non-contact tissue imaging system. The system utilizes a quasi-null source-detector separation approach for time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy, taking advantage of an innovative state-of-the-art fast-gated single photon counting detector. Measurements on phantoms demonstrate the feasibility of the non-contact approach for the detection of optically absorbing perturbations buried up to a few centimeters beneath the surface of a tissue-like turbid medium. The measured depth sensitivity and spatial resolution of the new system are close to the values predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for the inhomogeneous medium and an ideal fast-gated detector, thus proving the feasibility of the non-contact approach for high density diffuse reflectance measurements on tissue. Potential applications of the system are also discussed.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(120.3890) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.5280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photon migration
(170.6510) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: October 13, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 25, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: December 5, 2011
Published: December 20, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

M. Mazurenka, A. Jelzow, H. Wabnitz, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, and R. Macdonald, "Non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging at null source-detector separation," Opt. Express 20, 283-290 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35(13), 2304–2314 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Funane, H. Atsumori, A. Suzuki, and M. Kiguchi, “Noncontact brain activity measurement system based on near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 123701 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 300–306 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited