OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 18 — Aug. 27, 2012
  • pp: 20102–20114

A complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood carrier phase and frequency-offset estimation algorithm for coherent optical detection

Adaickalavan Meiyappan, Pooi-Yuen Kam, and Hoon Kim  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 18, pp. 20102-20114 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1661 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a symbol-by-symbol coherent optical receiver, which employs a novel, complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood (CW-DA-ML) carrier phase and frequency offset estimator. The CW-DA-ML carrier estimator uses a CW transversal filter to generate a carrier reference phasor, and the filter weights are automatically adapted on-line by linear regression on the observed signals. A complete modulo-R reduced frequency offset estimation (FOE) range of ± R/2 is achieved, independent of modulation format, where R is the symbol rate. Carrier phase and frequency tracking is achieved rapidly. The acquisition speed of frequency offset in quaternary phase-shift keying (4-PSK) signals is more than 5 times faster than that of differential FOE. A constant penalty of approximately 1 dB at bit-error rate of 10−4 is demonstrated for all frequency offsets in 4-PSK signals with laser-linewidth-symbol-duration product of 8 × 10−5.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: June 29, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 2, 2012
Published: August 17, 2012

Adaickalavan Meiyappan, Pooi-Yuen Kam, and Hoon Kim, "A complex-weighted, decision-aided, maximum-likelihood carrier phase and frequency-offset estimation algorithm for coherent optical detection," Opt. Express 20, 20102-20114 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. Derr, “Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: concept and digital receiver realization,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(9), 1290–1296 (1992). [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 12–21 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Y. Kam, “Maximum likelihood carrier phase recovery for linear suppressed-carrier digital data modulations,” IEEE Trans. Commun.34(6), 522–527 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu, “Decision-aided maximum likelihood detection in coherent optical phase-shift-keying system,” Opt. Express17(2), 703–715 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. “Integrable Tunable Laser Assembly Multi Source Agreement,” OIF-ITLA-MSA-01.1 (Optical Internetworking Forum, Los Angeles, 2005).
  6. A. Meiyappan, P. Y. Kam, and H. Kim, “Performance of decision-aided maximum-likelihood carrier phase estimation with frequency offset,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, paper OTu2G.6.
  7. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Frequency estimation in intradyne reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(6), 366–368 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Weber, “Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun.26(3), 385–391 (1978). [CrossRef]
  9. K.-P. Ho, Phase-modulated Optical Communication (Springer, 2005).
  10. P. Y. Kam, S. S. Ng, and T. S. Ng, “Optimum symbol-by-symbol detection of uncoded digital data over the Gaussian channel with unknown carrier phase,” IEEE Trans. Commun.42(8), 2543–2552 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Y. Kam, K. H. Chua, and X. Yu, “Adaptive symbol-by-symbol reception of MPSK on the Gaussian channel with unknown carrier phase characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Commun.46(10), 1275–1279 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2008).
  13. U. Mengali and A. N. D' Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).
  14. H. Meyr, M. Moeneclaey, and S. Fechtel, Digital Communication Receivers (John Wiley, 1997).
  15. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noe, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(8), 989–999 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited