OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 2 — Jan. 16, 2012
  • pp: 1406–1420

System analysis of a tilted field-widened Michelson interferometer for high spectral resolution lidar

Dong Liu, Chris Hostetler, Ian Miller, Anthony Cook, and Johnathan Hair  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 1406-1420 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.001406


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2156 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

High spectral resolution lidars (HSRLs) have shown great value in aircraft aerosol remote sensing application and are planned for future satellite missions. A compact, robust, quasi-monolithic tilted field-widened Michelson interferometer is being developed as the spectral discrimination filter for an second-generation HSRL(HSRL-2) at NASA Langley Research Center. The Michelson interferometer consists of a cubic beam splitter, a solid arm and an air arm. Piezo stacks connect the air arm mirror to the body of the interferometer and can tune the interferometer within a small range. The whole interferometer is tilted so that the standard Michelson output and the reflected complementary output can both be obtained. In this paper, the transmission ratio is proposed to evaluate the performance of the spectral filter for HSRL. The transmission ratios over different types of system imperfections, such as cumulative wavefront error, locking error, reflectance of the beam splitter and anti-reflection coatings, system tilt, and depolarization angle are analyzed. The requirements of each imperfection for good interferometer performance are obtained.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.4640) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical instruments
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar
(280.1350) Remote sensing and sensors : Backscattering

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 17, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 28, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: December 21, 2011
Published: January 9, 2012

Citation
Dong Liu, Chris Hostetler, Ian Miller, Anthony Cook, and Johnathan Hair, "System analysis of a tilted field-widened Michelson interferometer for high spectral resolution lidar," Opt. Express 20, 1406-1420 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-2-1406


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. C. Weitkamp and E. Eloranta, “High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” in Lidar (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 143–163.
  2. S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, and J. A. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1: theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt.22(23), 3716–3724 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Esselborn, M. Wirth, A. Fix, M. Tesche, and G. Ehret, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients,” Appl. Opt.47(3), 346–358 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, R. A. Ferrare, T. L. Mack, W. Welch, L. R. Izquierdo, and F. E. Hovis, “Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties,” Appl. Opt.47(36), 6734–6752 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Bruneau and J. Pelon, “Simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and extinction coefficients and wind velocity by lidar with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer: principle of operation and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt.42(6), 1101–1114 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C.-Y. She, “Spectral structure of laser light scattering revisited: bandwidths of nonresonant scattering lidars,” Appl. Opt.40(27), 4875–4884 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, and J. A. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1: theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt.22(23), 3716–3724 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, and M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt.18(22), 3783–3797 (1979). [PubMed]
  9. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett.15(13), 746–748 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. McGill and W. R. Skinner, “Multiple Fabry-Perot interferometers in an incoherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng.36(1), 139–145 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Heliere, A. Lefebvre, T. Wehr, J.-L. Bezy, and Y. Durand, “The EarthCARE mission: Mission concept and lidar instrument pre-development,” in the 23rd International Laser Radar Conference (IEEE International, Nara, Japan, 2006).
  12. P. Piironen and E. W. Eloranta, “Demonstration of a high-spectral-resolution lidar based on an iodine absorption filter,” Opt. Lett.19(3), 234–236 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Hair, L. M. Caldwell, D. A. Krueger, and C.-Y. She, “High-spectral-resolution lidar with iodine-vapor filters: measurement of atmospheric-state and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt.40(30), 5280–5294 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Ring and J. W. Schofield, “Field-compensated michelson spectrometers,” Appl. Opt.11(3), 507–516 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt.24(11), 1571–1584 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 2007).
  17. P. Hariharan, Optical Interferometry (Academic Press, 2003).
  18. W. A. Gault, S. F. Johnston, and D. J. W. Kendall, “Optimization of a field-widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt.24(11), 1604–1608 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. “Matlab Peaks Function,” (The Mathworks), http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/ref/peaks.html .
  20. http://www.lightmachinery.com/Fluid-Jet-Polishing.html .

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited