OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 21 — Oct. 8, 2012
  • pp: 23088–23099

Concurrent polarization retrieval in multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy: validation on silicon form-birefringent grating

L. Yu, T. Sfez, V. Paeder, P. Stenberg, W. Nakagawa, M. Kuittinen, and H. P. Herzig  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 21, pp. 23088-23099 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1548 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate a concurrent polarization-retrieval algorithm based on a multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy (MH-SNOM) measurement system. This method relies on calibration of the polarization properties of the MH-SNOM using an isotropic region of the sample in the vicinity of the nanostructures of interest. We experimentally show the effectiveness of the method on a silicon form-birefringent grating (FBG) with significant polarization diversity. Three spatial dimensional near-field measurements are in agreement with theoretical predictions obtained with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Pseudo-far-field measurements are performed to obtain the effective refractive index of the FBG, emphasizing the validity of the proposed method. This reconstruction algorithm makes the MH-SNOM a powerful tool to analyze concurrently the polarization-dependent near-field optical response of nanostructures with sub wavelength resolution as long as a calibration area is available in close proximity.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(110.5405) Imaging systems : Polarimetric imaging

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 27, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 17, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 18, 2012
Published: September 24, 2012

L. Yu, T. Sfez, V. Paeder, P. Stenberg, W. Nakagawa, M. Kuittinen, and H. P. Herzig, "Concurrent polarization retrieval in multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy: validation on silicon form-birefringent grating," Opt. Express 20, 23088-23099 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Courjon, J.-M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, “External and internal reflection near field microscopy: experiments and results,” Appl. Opt. 29(26), 3734–3740 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 208–210 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5553–5564 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(2), 494–501 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Grosjean, I. A. Ibrahim, M. A. Suarez, G. W. Burr, M. Mivelle, and D. Charraut, “Full vectorial imaging of electromagneticlight at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5809–5824 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. S. Goldner, M. J. Fasolka, S. Nougier, H.-P. Nguyen, G. W. Bryant, J. Hwang, K. D. Weston, K. L. Beers, A. Urbas, and E. L. Thomas, “Fourier analysis near-field polarimetry for measurement of local optical properties of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3864–3881 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009). [CrossRef]
  30. E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  32. S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009). [CrossRef]
  33. Q. Tan, A. Cosentino, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Theoretical and experimental study of a 30nm metallic slot array,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1711–1715 (2011). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009). [CrossRef]
  35. Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “Polarization-selective mapping of near-field intensity and phase around gold nanoparticles using apertureless near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1733–1741 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005). [CrossRef]
  38. R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011). [CrossRef]
  39. A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012). [CrossRef]
  40. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
  41. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 7th ed., 1999).
  42. W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Near-field localization of ultrashort optical pulses in transverse 1-D periodic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 7(3), 123–128 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in near-field periodic diffractive structures by use of rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(5), 1072–1081 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. T. C. Choy, Effective Medium Theory: Principles and Applications (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999).
  46. M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003). [CrossRef]
  47. F. Xu, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C.-C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Form-birefringent computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 21(18), 1513–1515 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited