OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 21 — Oct. 8, 2012
  • pp: 23617–23622

Lateral shearing digital holographic imaging of small biological specimens

Amardeep S.G. Singh, Arun Anand, Rainer A. Leitgeb, and Bahram Javidi  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 21, pp. 23617-23622 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1831 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A lateral shearing interferometer is used for direct holographic imaging of microorganisms. This is achieved by increasing the shear to be larger than the object size and results in a very simple and inexpensive common-path imaging device that can be easily coupled to the output of an inverted microscope. The shear is created by reflections from the front and back surface of a glass plate. Stability measurements show a standard deviation of the phase measurements of less than 1nm over 8 min. without any vibration compensation. The setup is applied to imaging both microorganisms in a microfluidic channel and red blood cells and reconstructions are presented.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(120.2880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Holographic interferometry
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy
(090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: July 25, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 24, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 26, 2012
Published: October 1, 2012

Amardeep S.G. Singh, Arun Anand, Rainer A. Leitgeb, and Bahram Javidi, "Lateral shearing digital holographic imaging of small biological specimens," Opt. Express 20, 23617-23622 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. Zernike, “Phase-contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica9(7), 686–698 (1942). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Nomarski, “Microinterférométrie differential et ondes polarizés,” J. Phys. Radium16, 9–135 (1955).
  3. P. Bon, G. Maucort, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells,” Opt. Express17(15), 13080–13094 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. V. R. K. Murty, “The use of a single plane parallel plate as a lateral shearing interferometer with a visible gas laser,” Appl. Opt.3(4), 531–534 (1964). [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Sirohi and M. P. Kothiyal, “Double wedge plate shearing interferometer for collimation test,” Appl. Opt.26(19), 4054–4056 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. S. Sarkisov, “Shearing interferometer with an air wedge for electron density diagnostics in a dense plasma,” Instrum. Exp. Tech.39, 727–731 (1996).
  7. S. V. Granov, V. I. Konov, A. A. Malyutin, O. G. Tsarkova, I. S. Yatskovsky, and F. Dausinger, “High resolution interferometric diagnostics of plasmas produced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Laser Phys.13, 386–396 (2003).
  8. E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett.24(5), 291–293 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett.22(16), 1268–1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Ferraro, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and L. De Petrocellis, “Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy for analysis of live cells by using lateral shearing approach in digital holography” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper DMA4.
  11. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 775–777 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Jang, C. Y. Bae, J.-K. Park, and J. C. Ye, “Self-reference quantitative phase microscopy for microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett.35(4), 514–516 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy,” Opt. Express18(26), 27499–27510 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. von Bally, “Simplified approach for quantitative digital holographic phase contrast imaging of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(2), 026014 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. T. Shaked, “Quantitative phase microscopy of biological samples using a portable interferometer,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2016–2018 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Coppola, G. Di Caprio, M. Gioffré, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, L. Miccio, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli, A. Finizio, and P. Ferraro, “Digital self-referencing quantitative phase microscopy by wavefront folding in holographic image reconstruction,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3390–3392 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt.39(23), 4070–4075 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: two dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci.23(4), 713–720 (1988). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Shin, M. Daneshpanah, A. Anand, and B. Javidi, “Optofluidic system for three-dimensional sensing and identification of micro-organisms with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 4066–4068 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7410–7418 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. P. Shukla and D. Malacara, “Some Applications of the Murty Interferometer: A Review,” Opt. Lasers Eng.26(1), 1–42 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Malacara, “Testing of optical surfaces”, Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester (1965)
  23. M.-L. Cruz, A. Anand, and B.Javidi are preparing a manuscript to be called “Classification of red blood cells infected with malaria using a robust shearing system and statistical methods”.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited