OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 23 — Nov. 5, 2012
  • pp: 25662–25680

The relationship between upwelling underwater polarization and attenuation/absorption ratio

Amir Ibrahim, Alexander Gilerson, Tristan Harmel, Alberto Tonizzo, Jacek Chowdhary, and Samir Ahmed  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 23, pp. 25662-25680 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2487 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The attenuation coefficient of the water body is not directly retrievable from measurements of unpolarized water-leaving radiance. Based on extensive radiative transfer simulations using the vector radiative transfer code RayXP, it is demonstrated that the underwater degree of linear polarization (DoLP) is closely related to the attenuation-to-absorption ratio (c/a) of the water body, a finding that enables retrieval of the attenuation coefficient from measurements of the Stokes components of the upwelling underwater polarized light field. The relationship between DoLP and the c/a ratio is investigated for the upwelling polarized light field for a complete set of viewing geometries, at several wavelengths in the visible part of the spectrum; for varying compositions of the aquatic environment, whose constituents include phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and color dissolved organic matter (CDOM); and for varying microphysical properties such as the refractive index and the slope of the Junge-type particle size distribution (PSD). Consequently, this study reveals the possibility for retrieval of additional inherent optical properties (IOPs) from air- or space-borne DoLP measurements of the water-leaving radiation.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
(010.5620) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiative transfer
(010.0280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Remote sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: August 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 16, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 23, 2012
Published: October 29, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 12 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Amir Ibrahim, Alexander Gilerson, Tristan Harmel, Alberto Tonizzo, Jacek Chowdhary, and Samir Ahmed, "The relationship between upwelling underwater polarization and attenuation/absorption ratio," Opt. Express 20, 25662-25680 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Y. Liu and K. Voss, “Polarized radiance distribution measurement of skylight. II. Experiment and data,” Appl. Opt.36(33), 8753–8764 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res-Atmos.114(D1), D01206 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt.40(15), 2398–2416 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Estimating particle composition and size distribution from polarized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt.50(25), 5047–5058 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Loisel, L. Duforet, D. Dessailly, M. Chami, and P. Dubuisson, “Investigation of the variations in the water leaving polarized reflectance from the POLDER satellite data over two biogeochemical contrasted oceanic areas,” Opt. Express16(17), 12905–12918 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H10 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Harmel and M. Chami, “Influence of polarimetric satellite data measured in the visible region on aerosol detection and on the performance of atmospheric correction procedure over open ocean waters,” Opt. Express19(21), 20960–20983 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt.45(22), 5542–5567 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev.16(4), 527–610 (1974). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express17(7), 5666–5683 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt.23(23), 4427–4439 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Harmel and M. Chami, “Invariance of polarized reflectance measured at the top of atmosphere by PARASOL satellite instrument in the visible range with marine constituents in open ocean waters,” Opt. Express16(9), 6064–6080 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt.40(18), 2929–2945 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans108(C7), 3211 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(2), 843–859 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A Comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr.6(2), 129–148 (1961). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Chami and D. McKee, “Determination of biogeochemical properties of marine particles using above water measurements of the degree of polarization at the Brewster angle,” Opt. Express15(15), 9494–9509 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans112(C5), C05026 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express18(10), 10432–10445 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, “PARASOL in-flight calibration and performance,” Appl. Opt.46(22), 5435–5451 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. http://www.eumetsat.int/groups/pps/documents/document/pdf_peps_mrd.pdf
  23. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt.50(24), 4873–4893 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. W. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H05 (2011). [CrossRef]
  25. J. T. Adams, E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, and B. Lundgren, “Comparison of radiance and polarization values observed in the Mediterranean sea and simulated in a Monte Carlo model,” Appl. Opt.41(15), 2724–2733 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. V. A. Timofeyeva, “Degree of polarization of light in turbid media,” Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Sssr Fizika Atmosfery. I. Okeana.6, 513–522 (1970).
  27. A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Estimation of the attenuation coefficient of the water body using polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8030, 803003 (2011). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Ibrahim, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, and S. Ahmed, “Exploring the relation between polarized light fields and physical-optical characteristics of the ocean for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE8160, 81600H (2011). [CrossRef]
  29. S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt.41(15), 2705–2714 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Neural network approach to retrieve the inherent optical properties of the ocean from observations of MODIS,” Appl. Opt.50(19), 3168–3186 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization techniques for the retrieval of water parameters from above and below water polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8372, 83720T, (2012). [CrossRef]
  33. R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. X. Zhang, and J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. I. Analytic Jacobians from the linearized CAO-DISORT model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra.104(3), 428–449 (2007). [CrossRef]
  34. H. H. Tynes, G. W. Kattawar, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, A. S. Prikhach, and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “Monte Carlo and multicomponent approximation methods for vector radiative transfer by use of effective Mueller matrix calculations,” Appl. Opt.40(3), 400–412 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt.15(3), 632–647 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. H. C. Van de Hulst, Light scattering by small particles (Dover Publications, 1981).
  37. A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, J. Schalles, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Fluorescence component in the reflectance spectra from coastal waters. Dependence on water composition,” Opt. Express15(24), 15702–15721 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, absorption, and emission of light by small particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  39. G. W. Kattawar, S. J. Hitzfeld, and J. Brinstock, “Explicit form of Mie phase matrix for multiple scattering calculations in I, Q, U and V representation,” J. Atmos. Sci.30(2), 289–295 (1973). [CrossRef]
  40. A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr.47(2), 404–417 (2002). [CrossRef]
  41. Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt.41(27), 5755–5772 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt.36(33), 8710–8723 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light-field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix - effect of interface refractive-index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr.34(8), 1453–1472 (1989). [CrossRef]
  44. C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt.38(36), 7442–7455 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE7825, 78250F (2010). [CrossRef]
  46. T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, A. Tonizzo, T. Legbandt, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt.50(30), 5842–5860 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “Measuring underwater polarization field from above-water hyperspectral instrumentation for water composition retrieval,” Proc. SPIE8175, 817509 (2011). [CrossRef]
  48. S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Assessment of a bidirectional reflectance distribution correction of above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.51(2), 220–237 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited