OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 24 — Nov. 19, 2012
  • pp: 26160–26166

Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics

Jung Woo Leem and Jae Su Yu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 24, pp. 26160-26166 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2264 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We reported the wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires with antireflective subwavelength structures (SWSs) which were fabricated by dry etching using thermally dewetted gold (Au) nanomasks. Their optical transmittance properties were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The density, size, and period of the thermally dewetted Au nanopatterns can be controlled by the Au film thickness. For the sapphire with both-side SWSs at 5 nm of Au film, the average total transmittance (Tavg) of ~96.5% at 350-800 nm was obtained, indicating a higher value than those of the flat sapphire (Tavg~85.6%) and the sapphire with one-side SWSs (Tavg~91%), and the less angle-dependent transmittance property was observed. The calculated transmittance results also showed a similar tendency to the measured data. The SWSs enhanced significantly the surface hydrophilicity of sapphires, exhibiting a water contact angle (θc) of < 5° for Au film of 5 nm compared to θc~37° of the flat sapphire.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: August 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 18, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 25, 2012
Published: November 5, 2012

Jung Woo Leem and Jae Su Yu, "Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics," Opt. Express 20, 26160-26166 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. H. Jeong, D. W. Kim, J. W. Bae, Y. J. Sung, J. S. Kwak, Y. J. Park, and G. Y. Yeom, “Dry etching of sapphire substrate for device separation in chlorine-based inductively coupled plasmas,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B93(1–3), 60–63 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. B. S. Patel and Z. H. Zaidi, “The suitability of sapphire for laser windows,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 146–151 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(33), 3713–3718 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. W. Leem, Y. Yeh, and J. S. Yu, “Enhanced transmittance and hydrophilicity of nanostructured glass substrates with antireflective properties using disordered gold nanopatterns,” Opt. Express20(4), 4056–4066 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflexion by the “Moth Eye” principle,” Nature244(5414), 281–282 (1973). [CrossRef]
  6. D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Broadband antireflective germanium surfaces based on subwavelength structures for photovoltaic cell applications,” Opt. Express19(27), 26308–26317 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. S. Lin, W. C. Hsu, K. C. Huang, and J. A. Yeh, “Wafer-level fabrication and optical characterization of nanoscale patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(1), 2–6 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Howarter and J. P. Youngblood, “Self-cleaning and next generation anti-fog surfaces and coating,” Macromol. Rapid Commun.29(6), 455–466 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Lee and B. I. Kim, “Thermal dewetting of Pt thin film: Etch-masks for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A449–451, 769–773 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71(7), 811–818 (1981). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. H. Ko and J. S. Yu, “Design of hemi-urchin shaped ZnO nanostructures for broadband and wide-angle antireflection coatings,” Opt. Express19(1), 297–305 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited