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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 25 — Dec. 3, 2012
  • pp: 27530–27541

Light extraction by directional sources within optically dense media

James R. Nagel  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 25, pp. 27530-27541 (2012)

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Light extraction efficiency (LEE) from a light-emitting diode is commonly referenced against an isotropic radiator within a dense dielectric medium. However, this description is not necessarily accurate for photonic devices with directional source elements. We therefore derive exact solutions for the LEE of a directive radiating source next to a planar dielectric boundary, accounting for any Fresnel reflections at the interface. These results can be used to validate numerical simulations and to quantify the baseline LEE for different source models. Four variations are explored, including the isotropic radiator, parallel and perpendicular orientations of the Hertzian dipole, and Lambertian scattering. Due to index matching, Fresnel reflections are generally negligible for materials with large escape cones, but reduce LEE by 20 % or more when critical angle is below 25°.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: October 26, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 14, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 14, 2012
Published: November 27, 2012

James R. Nagel, "Light extraction by directional sources within optically dense media," Opt. Express 20, 27530-27541 (2012)

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