OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 27 — Dec. 17, 2012
  • pp: 28683–28697

Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit

Matthias Hofherr, Olaf Wetzstein, Sonja Engert, Thomas Ortlepp, Benjamin Berg, Konstantin Ilin, Dagmar Henrich, Ronny Stolz, Hannes Toepfer, Hans-Georg Meyer, and Michael Siegel  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 27, pp. 28683-28697 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.028683


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1882 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
(270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: August 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 14, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 20, 2012
Published: December 10, 2012

Citation
Matthias Hofherr, Olaf Wetzstein, Sonja Engert, Thomas Ortlepp, Benjamin Berg, Konstantin Ilin, Dagmar Henrich, Ronny Stolz, Hannes Toepfer, Hans-Georg Meyer, and Michael Siegel, "Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit," Opt. Express 20, 28683-28697 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-27-28683


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express20(18), 20115–20123 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2982–2984 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 534–537 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Bunyk, K. Likharev, and D. Zinoviev, “RSFQ technology: physics and devices,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.11(01), 257–305 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Ortlepp, H. Toepfer, and H. F. Uhlmann, “Minimization of noise-induced bit error rate in a high TC superconducting dc/single flux quantum converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1279–1281 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).
  19. Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. O. Mukhanov, “Energy-Efficient Single Flux Quantum Technology,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 760–769 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. V. P. Ipatov, Spread Spectrum and CDMA (John Wiley & Sons, 2005) 31–37.
  25. O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012). [CrossRef]
  26. A. D. Semenov, G. N. Goltsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond.351(4), 349–356 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).
  28. E. L. Kuan, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.51(6), 1479–1493 (2002). [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Eldar and A. Chan, “An optimal whitening approach to linear multiuser detection,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory49(9), 2156–2171 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited