OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 3 — Jan. 30, 2012
  • pp: 2184–2195

F2Cor: fast 2-stage correlation algorithm for FCS and DLS

Emmanuel Schaub  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 2184-2195 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (851 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a new multiple-tau correlation algorithm which is the fastest to date. The resulting curve is identical to that obtained with the conventional multiple-tau algorithm, but the calculation time is much shorter. It combines two approaches. For short values of the lag-time a very simple correlation histogram is used, while for higher lag-time values the traditional multiple-tau bin-and-multiply approach is used. The lag-time limit between these two stages depends on the count rate. The computation time scales linearly with the count rate and is as fast as 0.1µs/photon.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(070.4550) Fourier optics and signal processing : Correlators
(120.5820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Scattering measurements
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(070.7145) Fourier optics and signal processing : Ultrafast processing

ToC Category:
Fourier Optics and Signal Processing

Original Manuscript: November 21, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 5, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 7, 2012
Published: January 17, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Emmanuel Schaub, "F2Cor: fast 2-stage correlation algorithm for FCS and DLS," Opt. Express 20, 2184-2195 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, 1976).
  2. P. Schwille and J. Ries, “Principles and applications of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS),” in Biophotonics: Spectroscopy, Imaging, Sensing, and Manipulation (Springer, 2011), pp. 63–85.
  3. K. Schätzel, “Correlation techniques in dynamic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem.42(4), 193–213 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Eid, J. D. Muller, and E. Gratton, “Data acquisition card for fluctuation correlation spectroscopy allowing full access to the detected photon sequence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(2), 361–368 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Chen, J. D. Müller, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J.77(1), 553–567 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Kask, K. Palo, D. Ullmann, and K. Gall, “Fluorescence-intensity distribution analysis and its application in biomolecular detection technology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.96(24), 13756–13761 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Qian and E. L. Elson, “On the analysis of high order moments of fluorescence fluctuations,” Biophys. J.57(2), 375–380 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Qian and E. L. Elson, “Distribution of molecular aggregation by analysis of fluctuation moments,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.87(14), 5479–5483 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. A. Laurence, A. N. Kapanidis, X. X. Kong, D. S. Chemla, and S. Weiss, “Photon arrival-time interval distribution (PAID): A novel tool for analyzing molecular interactions,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(9), 3051–3067 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Dertinger, V. Pacheco, I. von der Hocht, R. Hartmann, I. Gregor, and J. Enderlein, “Two-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: a new tool for accurate and absolute diffusion measurements,” ChemPhysChem8(3), 433–443 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Schwille, F. J. Meyer-Almes, and R. Rigler, “Dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy for multicomponent diffusional analysis in solution,” Biophys. J.72(4), 1878–1886 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Colyer, G. Scalia, I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, M. Ghioni, S. Cova, S. Weiss, and X. Michalet, “High-throughput FCS using an LCOS spatial light modulator and an 8 × 1 SPAD array,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(5), 1408–1431 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Magatti and F. Ferri, “Fast multi-tau real-time software correlator for dynamic light scattering,” Appl. Opt.40(24), 4011–4021 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Frenkel and B. Smit, Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications (Academic, 2002), p. 90.
  15. J. Ramírez, S. K. Sukumaran, B. Vorselaars, and A. E. Likhtman, “Efficient on the fly calculation of time correlation functions in computer simulations,” J. Chem. Phys.133(15), 154103 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Magatti and F. Ferri, “25 ns software correlator for photon and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(2), 1135–1144 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Wahl, I. Gregor, M. Patting, and J. Enderlein, “Fast calculation of fluorescence correlation data with asynchronous time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Express11(26), 3583–3591 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. A. Laurence, S. Fore, and T. Huser, “Fast, flexible algorithm for calculating photon correlations,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 829–831 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. L. Yang, H. Y. Lee, M. K. Wang, X. Y. Lin, K. H. Hsu, Y. R. Chang, W. Fann, and J. D. White, “Real-time data acquisition incorporating high-speed software correlator for single-molecule spectroscopy,” J. Microsc.234(3), 302–310 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. ALV-5000 Multiple Tau Digital Correlator Reference Manual (ALV gmbh, 1993).
  21. Z. Petrášek and P. Schwille, “Precise measurement of diffusion coefficients using scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J.94(4), 1437–1448 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. P. Skinner, Y. Chen, and J. D. Müller, “Position-sensitive scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Biophys. J.89(2), 1288–1301 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. Kapusta, M. Wahl, A. Benda, M. Hof, and J. Enderlein, “Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy,” J. Fluoresc.17(1), 43–48 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited