OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 4 — Feb. 13, 2012
  • pp: 4124–4135

Near-field probing of slow Bloch modes on photonic crystals with a nanoantenna

T-P. Vo, M. Mivelle, S. Callard, A. Rahmani, F. Baida, D. Charraut, A. Belarouci, D. Nedeljkovic, C. Seassal, G.W. Burr, and T. Grosjean  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 4124-4135 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2155 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We study the near-field probing of the slow Bloch laser mode of a photonic crystal by a bowtie nano-aperture (BNA) positioned at the end of a metal-coated fiber probe. We show that the BNA acts as a polarizing nanoprobe allowing us to extract information about the polarization of the near-field of the slow-light mode, without causing any significant perturbation of the lasing process. Near-field experiments reveal a spatial resolution better than λ/20 and a polarization ratio as strong as 110. We also demonstrate that the collection efficiency is two orders of magnitude larger for the BNA than for a 200 nm large circular aperture opened at the apex of the same metal-coated fiber tip. The BNA allows for overcoming one of the main limitations of SNOM linked to the well-known trade off between resolution and signal-to-noise ratio.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals
(180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
(130.5440) Integrated optics : Polarization-selective devices

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

Original Manuscript: November 23, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 26, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 31, 2012
Published: February 3, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

T-P. Vo, M. Mivelle, S. Callard, A. Rahmani, F. Baida, D. Charraut, A. Belarouci, D. Nedeljkovic, C. Seassal, G.W. Burr, and T. Grosjean, "Near-field probing of slow Bloch modes on photonic crystals with a nanoantenna," Opt. Express 20, 4124-4135 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Joannopoulos, S. Johnson, J. Winn, and R. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).
  2. S. Bozhevolnyi, V. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. Borel, and M. Kristensen, “Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: Explicit role of bloch harmonics,” Phys. Rev. B66, 235204 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Wuest, D. Erni, P. Strasser, F. Robin, H. Jackel, B. C. Buchler, A. F. Koenderink, V. Sandoghdar, and R. Harbers, “A “standing-wave meter” to measure dispersion and loss of photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261110 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Kramper, M. Kafesaki, C. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, U. Gösele, R. Wehrspohn, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, “Near-field visualization of light confinement in a photonic crystal microresonator,” Opt. Lett.29, 174–176 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Louvion, D. Gérard, J. Mouette, F. de Fornel, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, A. Rahmani, and S. Callard, “Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 113907 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M.-P. Bernal, M. Roussey, and F. Baida, “Near- and far-field verification of electro-optic effect enhancement on a tunable lithium niobate photonic crystal,” J. Microscopy229, 264–269 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, “Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 073901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T.-P. Vo, A. Rahmani, A. Belarouci, C. Seassal, D. Nedeljkovic, and S. Callard, “Near-field and far-field analysis of an azimuthally polarized slow bloch mode microlaser,” Opt. Express18, 26879–26886 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Girard and E. Dujardin, “Near-field Optical properties of top-down and bottom-up nanostructures”, J. Opt. A.8, S73–S86, (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. H. H. Tao, R. J. Liu, Z. Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, H. Q. Ma, L. A. Wu, and Z. B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near-field scanning optical microscopy”, Phys. Rev. B74, 205111 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 033902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 163102 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principle of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  14. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev.66, 163–182 (1944). [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys.17, 35 (1954). [CrossRef]
  16. Y.R. Samii and R. Mittra, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation25, 180–187 (1977). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Bortchagovsky, G. Colas des Francs, D. Molenda, A. Naber, and U. Fischer, “Transmission of an obliquely incident beam of light through small apertures in a metal film,” Appl. Phys. B.84, 49–53 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. U. Schroter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B64, 125420 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B62, 10504–10514 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Greffet and R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci.56, 133–237 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Vanlabeke and D. Barchiesi, “Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy - a theoretical comparison,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.10, 2193–2201 (1993). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73, 096501 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Viktorovitch, B. Ben Bakir, S. Boutami, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, C. Seassal, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, “3D harnessing of light with 2.5D photonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev.4, 401–413 (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection,” Opt. Lett.30, 64–66 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1, 438–483 (2009). [CrossRef]
  26. R. Grober, R. Schoelkopf, and D. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 1354–1356 (1997). [CrossRef]
  27. P. Schuck, D. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. Kino, and W. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 017402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Wang, E. X. Jin, S. M. Uppuluri, and X. Xu, “Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures,” Opt. Express14, 9902–9908 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. I. A. Ibrahim, M. Mivelle, T. Grosjean, J. T. Allegre, G. W. Burr, and F. I. Baida, “Bowtie-shaped nanoaperture: a modal study,” Opt. Lett.35, 2448–2450 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Mivelle, I. A. Ibrahim, F. Baida, G. W. Burr, D. Nedeljkovic, D. Charraut, J.-Y. Rauch, R. Salut, and T. Grosjean, “Bowtie nano-aperture as interfacebetween near-fields and a single-modefiber,” Opt. Express18, 15964–15974 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S.-H. Kwon and Y.-H. Lee, “High index-contrast 2d photonic band edge laser,” IEICE. Trans. Electron.E.87, 308–315 (2004).
  32. K. Sakai, E. Miyai, T. Sakaguchi, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, and S. Noda, “Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.23, 1335–1340 (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature441, 946 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. L. Wang and X. Xu, “High transmission nanoscale bowtie-shaped aperture probe for near-field optical imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 261105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  35. R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer, and D. Lougnot, “Integration of micrometer-sized polymer elements at the end of optical fibers by free-radical photopolymerization,” Appl. Opt.40, 5860–5871 (2001). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Taflove and S. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House: Boston, 2005).
  37. L. Novotny, M. Beversluis, K. Youngworth, and T. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 5251–5254 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. Grosjean, I. A. Ibrahim, M. A. Suarez, G. W. Burr, M. Mivelle, and D. Charraut, “Full vectorial imaging of electromagnetic light at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express18, 5809–5824 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, R. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, “InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 5102–5104 (2002). [CrossRef]
  40. G. Le Gac, A. Rahmani, C. Seassal, E. Picard, E. Hadji, and S. Callard, “Tuning of an active photonic crystal cavity by an hybrid silica/silicon near-field probe,” Opt. Express17, 21672–21679 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, “Near-field imaging of the interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves,” Opt. Lett.24, 747–749 (1999). [CrossRef]
  42. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and B. Vohnsen, “Near-field imaging of optical phase and its singularities”, Opt. Commun.212217–23 (2002). [CrossRef]
  43. L. Neumann, Y. Pang, A. Houyou, M. L. Juan, R. Gordon, and N.F. van Hulst, “Extraordinary optical transmission brightens near-field fiber probe,” Nano Lett.11, 365–360 (2011). [CrossRef]
  44. A. Belarouci, T. Benyattou, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “3D light harnessing based on coupling engineering between 1D-2D Photonic Crystal membranes and metallic nano-antenna,” Opt. Express18, A381–A394 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett.10, 891–895 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited