OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 4 — Feb. 13, 2012
  • pp: 4663–4674

Piston and tilt cophasing of segmented laser array using Shack-Hartmann sensor

Xiaohua Wang, Qiang Fu, Feng Shen, and Changhui Rao  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 4663-4674 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1863 KB) | SpotlightSpotlight on Optics

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a concept of detecting the piston and tilt errors with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and correcting them simultaneously via a segmented deformable mirror (DM) in a two-dimensional laser array. The concept in coherent beam combination (CBC) is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment. The simulative results show only two iterations are enough to correct the random initial phase errors in the steady condition. The experimental results confirm that this method works effectively in a dynamic condition. The study represents that the Shack-Hartmann sensor can extract any piston error in –π ~π, which means the concept is an arbitrary phasing technique for a laser array.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing
(140.3290) Lasers and laser optics : Laser arrays
(140.3298) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam combining

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: December 15, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 3, 2012
Published: February 9, 2012

Virtual Issues
March 19, 2012 Spotlight on Optics

Xiaohua Wang, Qiang Fu, Feng Shen, and Changhui Rao, "Piston and tilt cophasing of segmented laser array using Shack-Hartmann sensor," Opt. Express 20, 4663-4674 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(3), 567–577 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. L. Liu, M. A. Vorontsov, E. Polnau, T. Weyrauch, and L. A. Beresnev, “Adaptive phase-locked fiber array with wavefront phase tip-tilt compensation using piezoelectric fiber positioners,” Proc. SPIE6708, 67080K (2007).
  3. G. D. Goodno, C. P. Asman, J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. C. Cheung, D. Hammons, H. Injeyan, H. Komine, W. H. Long, M. McClellan, S. J. McNaught, S. Redmond, R. Simpson, J. Sollee, M. Weber, S. B. Weiss, and M. Wickham, “Brightness-scaling potential of actively phase-locked solid-state laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 460–472 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. G. D. Goodno, H. Komine, S. J. McNaught, S. B. Weiss, S. Redmond, W. Long, R. Simpson, E. C. Cheung, D. Howland, P. Epp, M. Weber, M. McClellan, J. Sollee, and H. Injeyan, “Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1247–1249 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, “Coherently coupled high power fiber arrays,” Proc. SPIE6102, 61020U, 61020U-5 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, Y. Ma, H. Ma, and X. Xu, “Coherent beam combination of two-dimensional high power fiber amplifier array using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231106 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. T. M. Shay, V. Benham, J. T. Baker, A. D. Sanchez, D. Pilkington, and C. A. Lu, “Self-synchronous and self-referenced coherent beam combination for large optical arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 480–486 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. N. M. Lyndin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. Y. Tikhomirov, “Coherent coupling of two Nd3-doped single-mode waveguide lasers using Y-junction,” Proc. SPIE2212, 564–570 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, S. J. Augst, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, A. Sanchez-Rubio, J. P. Donnelly, J. L. Hostetler, C. Miester, and F. Dorsch, “Coherent combination of slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers,” Proc. SPIE7230, 72301G, 72301G-12 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fridman, V. Eckhouse, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, “Efficient coherent addition of fiber lasers in free space,” Opt. Lett.32(7), 790–792 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Wang, E. Mies, M. Minden, and A. Sanchez, “All-fiber 50 W coherently combined passive laser array,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 863–865 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. J. McNaught, C. P. Asman, H. Injeyan, A. Jankevics, A. M. Johnson, G. C. Jones, H. Komine, J. Machan, J. Marmo, and M. McClellan, “100-kW coherently combined Nd: YAG MOPA laser array,” in OSA Technical Digest, Frontiers in Optics (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper FThD2.
  13. Y. Zheng, X. Wang, L. Deng, F. Shen, and X. Li, “Arbitrary phasing technique for two-dimensional coherent laser array based on an active segmented mirror,” Appl. Opt.50(15), 2239–2245 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Zheng, X. Wang, F. Shen, and X. Li, “Generation of dark hollow beam via coherent combination based on adaptive optics,” Opt. Express18(26), 26946–26958 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Zhou, Y. Ma, X. Wang, H. Ma, X. Xu, and Z. Liu, “Coherent beam combination of three two-tone fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2939–2941 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Esposito, E. Pinna, A. Puglisi, A. Tozzi, and P. Stefanini, “Pyramid sensor for segmented mirror alignment,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2572–2574 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. L. Baker, D. Homoelle, E. Utterback, and S. M. Jones, “Phasing rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express17(22), 19551–19565 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. C. West, “Interferometric hartmann wave-front sensing for active optics at the 6.5-m conversion of the multiple mirror telescope,” Appl. Opt.41(19), 3781–3789 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Chanan, M. Troy, F. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, and D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt.37(1), 140–155 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Yang, R. Yang, L. Dong, X. Lei, and B. Xu, “Hartmann phase pick-up method for detection and correction of piston aberrations in a multi-beam coherent combination system,” Appl. Phys. B98(2-3), 465–469 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. X. Wang and F. Shen, “Application of DBPIP to phase errors detection in coherent beam combination,” Proc. SPIE7656, 76564Q, 76564Q-9 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. D. R. Neal, T. G. Smith, G. R. Eisler, J. L. Wilcoxen, and R. R. Rosenthal, “Multiple laser beam combining and phasing using closed-loop control,” Proc. SPIE1920, 9–19 (1993). [CrossRef]
  23. D. R. Neal, W. J. Alford, J. K. Gruetzner, and M. E. Warren, “Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE2870, 72–82 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. D. R. Neal, D. J. Armstrong, and W. T. Turner, “Wavefront sensors for control and process monitoring in optics manufacture,” Proc. SPIE2993, 211–220 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts & Company Publishers, Greenwood Village, 2004).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited