OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 6 — Mar. 12, 2012
  • pp: 6657–6668

Monolithic integration of binary-phase fresnel zone plate objectives on 2-axis scanning micromirrors for compact microscopes

Youmin Wang, Karthik Kumar, Lingyun Wang, and Xiaojing Zhang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 6, pp. 6657-6668 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2517 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrated a unique monolithic integration of Fresnel elliptical zone plate (EZP) objective on a 2-axis staggered vertical comb-drive micromirror with 500μm by 800μm surface area via direct patterning of reflective binary phase modulation elements on a silicon chip. The need for focusing optics is thus obviated, simplifying the micro-endoscope assembly and improving its form factor. The design of binary phase EZP was guided by simulations based on FFT based Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction model. For dual-axis scanning angles up to 9º by 9º at the image plane, the simulated diffracted Airy disks on a spatial map have been demonstrated to vary from 10.5μm to 28.6μm. Micromirrors scanning ±9º (optical) about both axes are patterned with elliptical zones designed for 7mm focal length and 20þ off-axis 635-nm illumination using 635nm laser. Videos of samples acquired with ~15μm lateral resolution over 1mm × 0.35mm field of view (FOV) at 5.0 frames/second using the device in both transmission and reflectance modes bench-top single-fiber laser scanning confocal microscope confirmed the applicability of the device to micro-endoscopy.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.1790) Medical optics and biotechnology : Confocal microscopy
(230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: December 12, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 20, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 28, 2012
Published: March 7, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Youmin Wang, Karthik Kumar, Lingyun Wang, and Xiaojing Zhang, "Monolithic integration of binary-phase fresnel zone plate objectives on 2-axis scanning micromirrors for compact microscopes," Opt. Express 20, 6657-6668 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. S. Montgomery and S. E. Wilson, “Intraabdominal abscesses: image-guided diagnosis and therapy,” Clin. Infect. Dis.23(1), 28–36 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. T. Pan, T. Q. Xie, C. W. Du, S. Bastacky, S. Meyers, and M. L. Zeidel, “Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(24), 2485–2487 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Inoué, “Foundations of confocal scanned imaging in light microscopy,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Springer 2006) pp. 1–19.
  4. Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. Yang, “Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(6), 063001 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, “Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(3), 505–513 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kumar, R. Avritscher, Y. Wang, N. Lane, D. C. Madoff, T. K. Yu, J. W. Uhr, and X. Zhang, “Handheld histology-equivalent sectioning laser-scanning confocal optical microscope for interventional imaging,” Biomed. Microdevices12(2), 223–233 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Wang, S. Bish, J. W. Tunnell, and X. Zhang, “MEMS scanner enabled real-time depth sensitive hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue,” Opt. Express18(23), 24101–24108 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. J. Shin, M. C. Pierce, D. Lee, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens,” Opt. Express15(15), 9113–9122 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Kumar and X. Zhang, “CMOS-compatible 2-axis self-aligned vertical comb-driven micromirror for large field-of-view microendoscopes,” in International Conference MicroElectroMechenical Systems (MEMS 2009), Sorrento, Italy, 2009, 1015–1018.
  10. G. D. J. Su, S. S. Lee, and M. C. Wu, “Optical scanners realized by surface-micromachined vertical torsion mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(5), 587–589 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Xie, H. Xie, G. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett.39(21), 1535–1536 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope,” Opt. Lett.29(7), 706–708 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” Opt. Lett.21(10), 764–766 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Lin, S. Lee, K. Pister, and M. Wu, “Micro-machined three-dimensional micro-optics for integrated free-space optical system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(12), 1445–1447 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kumar, H. Cao, and X. Zhang, “Monolithic integration binary-phase Fresnel zone plate objectives on 2-axis scanning micromirrors for compact microendoscopes,” Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems Workshop, South Carolina, June 1–5, 2008, pp. 292–295.
  16. M. Young, “Zone plates and their aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.62(8), 972–976 (1972). [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Cao and J. Jahns, “Comprehensive focusing analysis of various Fresnel zone plates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21(4), 561–571 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Cha, P. C. Lin, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Nontranslational three-dimensional profilometry by chromatic confocal microscopy with dynamically configurable micromirror scanning,” Appl. Opt.39(16), 2605–2613 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, 1970).
  20. N. Delen and B. Hooker, “Free-space beam propagation between arbitrarily oriented planes based on full diffraction theory: a fast Fourier transform approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15(4), 857–867 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. U. Krishnamoorthy, D. Lee, and O. Solgaard, “Self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives for micromirror actuation,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.12(4), 458–464 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. K. Kumar, K. Hoshino, H. J. Shin, R. Richards-Kortum, and X. Zhang, “High-reflectivity two-axis vertical comb drive microscanners for confocal imaging applications,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications, Big Sky, MT, 2006, 120–121.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited