OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 7 — Mar. 26, 2012
  • pp: 7544–7554

Transmission of PM-QPSK and PS-QPSK with different fiber span lengths

Martin Sjödin, Ben J. Puttnam, Pontus Johannisson, Satoshi Shinada, Naoya Wada, Peter A. Andrekson, and Magnus Karlsson  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 7, pp. 7544-7554 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1316 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We perform experimental and numerical investigations of the transmission reach of polarization-switched QPSK (PS-QPSK) and polarization-multiplexed QPSK (PM-QPSK) for three different fiber span lengths: 83, 111 and 136 km. In the experimental comparison we investigate the performance of PS-QPSK at 20 Gbaud and PM-QPSK at the same bit rate (60 Gbit/s) and at the same symbol rate, both the single channel case and a WDM system with 9 channels on a 50 GHz grid. We show that PS-QPSK gives significant benefits in transmission reach for all span lengths. Compared to PM-QPSK, use of PS-QPSK increases the reach with more than 41% for the same symbol rate and 21% for the same bit rate. In the numerical simulations we use the same data rates as in the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the experimental findings, but the transmission reach is longer due to the absence of various non-ideal effects and higher back-to-back sensitivity. Apart from using data coded in the absolute phase in the simulations, we also investigate differentially coded PS-QPSK for the first time and compare with PM-QPSK with differential coding. The power efficiency advantage of PS-QPSK then increases with approximately 0.3 dB at a bit error rate of 10−3, resulting in a further relative transmission reach improvement over PM-QPSK. Both the experimental and the numerical results indicate that PS-QPSK has slightly higher tolerance to inter-channel nonlinear crosstalk than PM-QPSK.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: January 11, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 1, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 2, 2012
Published: March 19, 2012

Martin Sjödin, Ben J. Puttnam, Pontus Johannisson, Satoshi Shinada, Naoya Wada, Peter A. Andrekson, and Magnus Karlsson, "Transmission of PM-QPSK and PS-QPSK with different fiber span lengths," Opt. Express 20, 7544-7554 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?” Opt. Express 17(13), 10814–10819 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5115–5126 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Generalized pulse-position modulation for optical power-efficient communication,” Proc. of ECOC 2011, Tu.6.B.6 (2011).
  4. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, “Performance evaluation of coherent WDM PS-QPSK (HEXA) accounting for non-linear fiber propagation effects,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11360–11371 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Serena, A. Vannucci, and A. Bononi, “The performance of polarization-switched QPSK (PS-QPSK) in dispersion managed WDM transmissions,” Proc. of ECOC 2010, Th.10.E.2 (2010).
  6. M. Sjödin, P. Johannisson, H. Wymeersch, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, “Comparison of polarization-switched QPSK and polarization-multiplexed QPSK at 30 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7839–7846 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. K. Fischer, L. Molle, M. Nölle, D.-D. Grob, and C. Schubert, “Experimental investigation of 28-GBd polarization-switched quadrature phase-shift keying signals” Proc. of ECOC 2011, Mo.2.B.1 (2011).
  8. D. Lavery, C. Behrens, S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, “Long-haul transmission of PS-QPSK at 100 Gb/s using digital backpropagation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 176–178 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. D. S. Millar, D. Lavery, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, S. J. Savory, “Generation and long-haul transmission of polarization-switched QPSK at 42.9 Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9296–9302 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, N. Mac Suibhne, A. D. Ellis, P. Magill, “Experimental comparison of coherent polarization-switched QPSK to polarization-multiplexed QPSK for 10 × 100 km WDM transmission,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10849–10856 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental investigation of 28Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed-QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” Proc. of ECOC 2011, Mo.2.B.3 (2011).
  12. M. Nölle, J. K. Fischer, L. Molle, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, D. Peckham, C. Schubert, “Comparison of 8 × 112 Gb/s PS-QPSK and PDM-QPSK signals over transoceanic distances,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24370–24375 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(4), 543–551 (1983). [CrossRef]
  14. P. Johannisson, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, H. Wymeersch, E. Agrell, P. A. Andrekson, “Modified constant modulus algorithm for polarization-switched QPSK,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7734–7741 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Wang, C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization evolution due to the Kerr nonlinearity and chromatic dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(12), 2520–2529 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited