OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 8 — Apr. 9, 2012
  • pp: 8356–8366

Comparison of 128-SP-QAM with PM-16-QAM

Martin Sjödin, Pontus Johannisson, Jianqiang Li, Erik Agrell, Peter A. Andrekson, and Magnus Karlsson  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 8, pp. 8356-8366 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1733 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this paper we investigate an interesting modulation format for fiber optic communications, set-partitioning 128 polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM (128-SP-QAM), which consists of the symbols with even parity from the symbol alphabet of polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM (PM-16-QAM). We compare 128-SP-QAM and PM-16-QAM using numerical simulations in long-haul transmission scenarios at bit rates of 112 Gbit/s and 224 Gbit/s, and at the same symbol rates (14 and 28 Gbaud). The transmission link is made up of standard single-mode fiber with 60, 80 or 100 km amplifier spacing and both single channel and WDM transmission (25- and 50 GHz-spaced) is investigated. The results show that 128-SP-QAM achieves more than 40% increase in transmission reach compared to PM-16-QAM at the same data rate for all cases studied for a bit error rate of 10−3. In addition, we find that in single channel transmission there is, as expected, an advantage in terms of transmission distance when using a data rate of 112 Gbit/s as compared to 224 Gbit/s. However, when comparing the two different WDM systems with the same aggregate data rates, the reach is similar due to the smaller impact of nonlinear crosstalk between the WDM channels in the systems with 50 GHz spacing. We also discuss decoding and phase estimation of 128-SP-QAM and implement differential coding, which avoids error bursts due to cycle slips in the phase estimation. Simulations including laser phase noise show that the phase noise tolerance is similar for the two formats, with 0.5 dB OSNR penalty compared to the case with zero phase noise for a laser linewidth to symbol rate ratio of 10−4.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: February 14, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 21, 2012
Published: March 26, 2012

Martin Sjödin, Pontus Johannisson, Jianqiang Li, Erik Agrell, Peter A. Andrekson, and Magnus Karlsson, "Comparison of 128-SP-QAM with PM-16-QAM," Opt. Express 20, 8356-8366 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 12–21 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sun, K. T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Express16(2), 873–879 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “Transmission of 96x100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 491–498 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 547–556 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Ishii, “Ultra-high capacity WDM transmission using spectrally-efficient PDM 16-QAM modulation and C- and extended L-band wideband optical amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 578–586 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?” Opt. Express17(13), 10814–10819 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(22), 5115–5126 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach and S. Chandrasekhar “Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB1.
  9. H. Bülow, “Polarization QAM modulation (POLQAM) for coherent detection schemes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWG2.
  10. L. D. Coelho and N. Hanik, “Global optimization of fiber-optic communication systems using four-dimensional modulation formats,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Mo.2.B.4. .
  11. G. Ungerboeck, “Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory28(1), 55–67 (1982). [CrossRef]
  12. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, and F. Forghieri, “Performance evaluation of coherent WDM PS-QPSK (HEXA) accounting for nonlinear fiber propagation effects,” Opt. Express18(11), 11360–11371 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Spectrally efficient four-dimensional modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu2C.1
  14. J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, “Fast quantizing and decoding algorithms for lattice quantizers and codes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory28(2), 227–232 (1982). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(8), 989–999 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Johannisson, M. Sjödin, M. Karlsson, H. Wymeersch, E. Agrell, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modified constant modulus algorithm for polarization-switched QPSK,” Opt. Express19(8), 7734–7741 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Xie, “Local oscillator induced penalties in optical coherent detection systems using electronic chromatic dispersion compensation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMT4.
  18. D. Wang and C. R. Menyuk, “Polarization evolution due to the Kerr nonlinearity and chromatic dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol.17(12), 2520–2529 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Serena, A. Vannucci, and A. Bononi, “The performance of polarization switched QPSK (PS-QPSK) in dispersion managed WDM transmissions,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), paper Th.10.E.2.
  20. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, V. Miot, and F. Forghieri, “Performance dependence on channel baud-rate of PM-QPSK systems over uncompensated links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(1), 15–17 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited