OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 1 — Jan. 14, 2013
  • pp: 893–902

Quantum detector tomography of a time-multiplexed superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at telecom wavelengths

Chandra M. Natarajan, Lijian Zhang, Hendrik Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Gaia Donati, Sander N. Dorenbos, Val Zwiller, Ian A. Walmsley, and Robert H. Hadfield  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 893-902 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.000893


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1387 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are widely used in telecom wavelength optical quantum information science applications. Quantum detector tomography allows the positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) of a single-photon detector to be determined. We use an all-fiber telecom wavelength detector tomography test bed to measure detector characteristics with respect to photon flux and polarization, and hence determine the POVM. We study the SNSPD both as a binary detector and in an 8-bin, fiber based, Time-Multiplexed (TM) configuration at repetition rates up to 4 MHz. The corresponding POVMs provide an accurate picture of the photon number resolving capability of the TM-SNSPD.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.5570) Detectors : Quantum detectors
(270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors
(270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

History
Original Manuscript: September 10, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 18, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 18, 2012
Published: January 9, 2013

Citation
Chandra M. Natarajan, Lijian Zhang, Hendrik Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Gaia Donati, Sander N. Dorenbos, Val Zwiller, Ian A. Walmsley, and Robert H. Hadfield, "Quantum detector tomography of a time-multiplexed superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at telecom wavelengths," Opt. Express 21, 893-902 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-1-893


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “Measurement of the Wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70(9), 1244–1247 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. F. Poyatos, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Complete characterization of a quantum process: The two-bit quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(2), 390–393 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys.5(1), 27–30 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Luis and L. L. Sanchez-Soto, “Complete characterization of arbitrary quantum measurement processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(18), 3573–3576 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Fiurášek, “Maximum-likelihood estimation of quantum measurement,” Phys. Rev. A64(2), 024102 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. G. M. D’Ariano, L. Maccone, and P. Lo Presti, “Quantum calibration of measurement instrumentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(25), 250407 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 432–441 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, M. G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085001 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Itzler, X. D. Jiang, M. Entwistle, K. Slomkowski, A. Tosi, F. Acerbi, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Advances in InGaAsP-based avalanche diode single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.58(3-4), 174–200 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express16(5), 3032–3040 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Rosenberg, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors,” Phys. Rev. A71(6), 061803 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(7), 071101 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express13(26), 10846–10853 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature491(7424), 421–425 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. D’Auria, N. Lee, T. Amri, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Quantum decoherence of single-photon counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(5), 050504 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. J. Zhang, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, A. Datta, G. Puentes, J. S. Lundeen, X. M. Jin, B. J. Smith, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 364–368 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in single photon detection: modeling and quantum tomography,” Opt. Express19(22), 21305–21312 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express20(3), 2806–2813 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, “Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2387–2389 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys.11(9), 093038 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. L. Zhang, A. Datta, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, X.-M. Jin, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Recursive quantum detector tomography,” New J. Phys.14(11), 115005 (2012). [CrossRef]
  26. G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 705–707 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Physica C351(4), 349–356 (2001). [CrossRef]
  28. J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans.Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Levy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 302–306 (2008). [CrossRef]
  30. S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, and A. Fiore, “Photon-number resolving detector based on a series array of superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072602 (2012). [CrossRef]
  31. M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, S. A. Hamilton, K. K. Berggren, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-order temporal coherences of chaotic and laser light,” Opt. Express18(2), 1430–1437 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low noise superconducting single photon detectors on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 131101 (2008). [CrossRef]
  33. R. Radebaugh, “Refrigeration for superconductors,” Proc. IEEE92(10), 1719–1734 (2004). [CrossRef]
  34. K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, “Photon counting with a loop detector,” Opt. Lett.28(1), 52–54 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161102 (2008). [CrossRef]
  37. M. Tinkham, Introduction to superconductivity (McGraw-Hill, 1996)
  38. M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O'Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Urena, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221109 (2010). [CrossRef]
  39. J. Řeháček, D. Mogilevtsev, and Z. Hradil, “Tomography for quantum diagnostics,” New J. Phys.10(4), 043022 (2008). [CrossRef]
  40. K. M. R. Audenaert and S. Scheel, “Quantum tomographic reconstruction with error bars: a Kalman filter approach,” New J. Phys.11(2), 023028 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited