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## Ultralow noise up-conversion detector and spectrometer for the telecom bandGuo-Liang Shentu, Jason S. Pelc, Xiao-Dong Wang, Qi-Chao Sun, Ming-Yang Zheng, M. M. Fejer, Qiang Zhang, and Jian-Wei Pan »View Author Affiliations
Guo-Liang Shentu,
^{1}
Jason S. Pelc,^{2}
Xiao-Dong Wang,^{3}
Qi-Chao Sun,^{1}
Ming-Yang Zheng,^{1}
M. M. Fejer,^{2}
Qiang Zhang,^{1}
and Jian-Wei Pan^{1}
Corresponding author: qiangzh@ustc.edu.cn |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 12, pp. 13986-13991 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.013986

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### Abstract

We demonstrate up-conversion single-photon detection for the 1550-nm telecommunications band using a PPLN waveguide, long-wavelength pump, and narrowband filtering using a volume Bragg grating. We achieve total-system detection efficiency of around 30% with noise at the dark-count level of a Silicon APD. Based on the new detector, a single-pixel up-conversion infrared spectrometer with a noise equivalent power of −142 dBm Hz^{-1/2} was demonstrated, which was as good as a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD camera.

© 2013 OSA

**OCIS Codes**

(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

(190.7220) Nonlinear optics : Upconversion

(270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors

**ToC Category:**

Nonlinear Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: April 30, 2013

Revised Manuscript: May 21, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: May 22, 2013

Published: June 3, 2013

**Citation**

Guo-Liang Shentu, Jason S. Pelc, Xiao-Dong Wang, Qi-Chao Sun, Ming-Yang Zheng, M. M. Fejer, Qiang Zhang, and Jian-Wei Pan, "Ultralow noise up-conversion detector and spectrometer for the telecom band," Opt. Express **21**, 13986-13991 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-12-13986

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### References

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- Princeton Instruments, “Spectroscopy Cameras PyLoN,” http://www.piacton.com/Uploads/Princeton/Documents/Datasheets/Princeton_Instruments_PyLoN-IR_RevN2_9_23_12.pdf .
- All pump power mentioned below is measured by a power meter after the DM.
- P. A. Jansson, Deconvolution of Images and Spectra (Academic Press, 1997), Chap. 14.
- L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Single photon frequency up-conversion and its applications,” Phys. Rep.521(2), 69–94 (2012). [CrossRef]
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- R. Ikuta, Y. Kusaka, T. Kitano, H. Kato, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Wide-band quantum interface for visible-to-telecommunication wavelength conversion,” Nat Commun2, 1544 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. M. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, “Visible-to-telecom quantum frequency conversion of light from a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(14), 147404 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. S. Pelc, L. Yu, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, C. M. Natarajan, V. Esfandyarpour, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and M. M. Fejer, “Downconversion quantum interface for a single quantum dot spin and 1550-nm single-photon channel,” Opt. Express20(25), 27510–27519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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**Albota, M. A.**

**Albrecht, R.**

- S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. M. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, “Visible-to-telecom quantum frequency conversion of light from a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(14), 147404 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Alibart, O.**

- S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature437(7055), 116–120 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Arend, C.**

- S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. M. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, “Visible-to-telecom quantum frequency conversion of light from a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(14), 147404 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Asobe, M.**

- Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, “Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys.11(4), 045010 (2009). [CrossRef]
- H. Kamada, M. Asobe, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, and H. Miyazawa, “Efficient and low-noise single-photon detection in 1550 nm communication band by frequency upconversion in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 639–641 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Baldi, P.**

- S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature437(7055), 116–120 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Becher, C.**

**Cai, W. Q.**

**Chen, K.**

**Chen, L. K.**

**Chen, T. Y.**

**Chen, W.**

**Chen, Z. B.**

**De Greve, K.**

- J. S. Pelc, L. Yu, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, C. M. Natarajan, V. Esfandyarpour, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and M. M. Fejer, “Downconversion quantum interface for a single quantum dot spin and 1550-nm single-photon channel,” Opt. Express20(25), 27510–27519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Diamanti, E.**

**Dixon, A. R.**

**Dong, H.**

- H. Dong, H. Pan, L. Yao, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Efficient single-photon frequency upconversion at 1.06 μm with ultralow background counts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071101 (2008). [CrossRef]

**Dynesl, J. F.**

**Esfandyarpour, V.**

- J. S. Pelc, L. Yu, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, C. M. Natarajan, V. Esfandyarpour, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, and M. M. Fejer, “Downconversion quantum interface for a single quantum dot spin and 1550-nm single-photon channel,” Opt. Express20(25), 27510–27519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Fejer, M. M.**

- P. S. Kuo, J. S. Pelc, O. Slattery, Y. S. Kim, M. M. Fejer, and X. Tang, “Reducing noise in single-photon-level frequency conversion,” Opt. Express38, 1310–1312 (2013).
- J. S. Pelc, P. S. Kuo, O. Slattery, L. Ma, X. Tang, and M. M. Fejer, “Dual-channel, single-photon upconversion detector at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express20(17), 19075–19087 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. S. Pelc, L. Ma, C. R. Phillips, Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and M. M. Fejer, “Long-wavelength-pumped upconversion single-photon detector at 1550 nm: performance and noise analysis,” Opt. Express19(22), 21445–21456 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Waveguide-based single-pixel up-conversion infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Express16(24), 19557–19561 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1725–1727 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Forchel, A.**

**Gisin, N.**

- D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra-low loss fibres,” New J. Phys.11(7), 075003 (2009). [CrossRef]
- R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071104 (2008). [CrossRef]

**Gray, S.**

- D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra-low loss fibres,” New J. Phys.11(7), 075003 (2009). [CrossRef]

**Guo, G. C.**

**Guo, J. F.**

**Hadfield, R. H.**

- R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009). [CrossRef]
- H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007). [CrossRef]

**Halder, M.**

**Han, Z. F.**

**Hepp, C.**

**Hirohata, T.**

- Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, “Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys.11(4), 045010 (2009). [CrossRef]

**Höfling, S.**

**Honjo, T.**

- N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express19(11), 10632–10639 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Kamada, M. Asobe, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, and H. Miyazawa, “Efficient and low-noise single-photon detection in 1550 nm communication band by frequency upconversion in periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.33(7), 639–641 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 343–348 (2007). [CrossRef]

**Ikuta, R.**

- R. Ikuta, Y. Kusaka, T. Kitano, H. Kato, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Wide-band quantum interface for visible-to-telecommunication wavelength conversion,” Nat Commun2, 1544 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Imoto, N.**

- R. Ikuta, Y. Kusaka, T. Kitano, H. Kato, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Wide-band quantum interface for visible-to-telecommunication wavelength conversion,” Nat Commun2, 1544 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Inoue, S.**

**Jetter, M.**

**Kamada, H.**

**Kamp, M.**

**Kato, H.**

**Keßler, C. A.**

**Kettler, J.**

**Kim, Y. S.**

- P. S. Kuo, J. S. Pelc, O. Slattery, Y. S. Kim, M. M. Fejer, and X. Tang, “Reducing noise in single-photon-level frequency conversion,” Opt. Express38, 1310–1312 (2013).

**Kitano, T.**

**Koashi, M.**

**Kumar, P.**

**Kuo, P. S.**

- J. S. Pelc, P. S. Kuo, O. Slattery, L. Ma, X. Tang, and M. M. Fejer, “Dual-channel, single-photon upconversion detector at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express20(17), 19075–19087 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Kusaka, Y.**

**Kwiat, P. G.**

- A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1433–1445 (2004).

**Langrock, C.**

- J. S. Pelc, L. Ma, C. R. Phillips, Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and M. M. Fejer, “Long-wavelength-pumped upconversion single-photon detector at 1550 nm: performance and noise analysis,” Opt. Express19(22), 21445–21456 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Waveguide-based single-pixel up-conversion infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Express16(24), 19557–19561 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1725–1727 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Lenhard, A.**

**Li, H. W.**

**Liang, H.**

**Liu, S. B.**

**Liu, Y.**

**Ma, L.**

- L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Single photon frequency up-conversion and its applications,” Phys. Rep.521(2), 69–94 (2012). [CrossRef]
- M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, “Quantum transduction of telecommunications-band single photons from a quantum dot by frequency upconversion,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 786–791 (2010). [CrossRef]
- L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Experimental study of high sensitivity infrared spectrometer with waveguide-based up-conversion detector,” Opt. Express17(16), 14395–14404 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Maier, S.**

**McMahon, P. L.**

**Michler, P.**

**Miyazawa, H.**

**Nam, S. W.**

**Namekata, N.**

**Natarajan, C. M.**

**Nishida, Y.**

**Pan, H.**

- H. Dong, H. Pan, L. Yao, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Efficient single-photon frequency upconversion at 1.06 μm with ultralow background counts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071101 (2008). [CrossRef]

**Pan, J. W.**

**Pelc, J. S.**

**Peng, C. Z.**

**Phillips, C. R.**

**Rakher, M. T.**

- M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, “Quantum transduction of telecommunications-band single photons from a quantum dot by frequency upconversion,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 786–791 (2010). [CrossRef]

**Roussev, R. V.**

**Schneider, C.**

**Schulz, W. M.**

**Sharpe, A. W.**

**Shields, A. J.**

**Slattery, O.**

- L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Single photon frequency up-conversion and its applications,” Phys. Rep.521(2), 69–94 (2012). [CrossRef]
- L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Experimental study of high sensitivity infrared spectrometer with waveguide-based up-conversion detector,” Opt. Express17(16), 14395–14404 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Srinivasan, K.**

**Stucki, D.**

**Suyama, M.**

**Tadanaga, O.**

**Takesue, H.**

- N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express19(11), 10632–10639 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Takesue, “Erasing distinguishability using quantum frequency up-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(17), 173901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Takiguchi, Y.**

**Tamaki, K.**

**Tang, X.**

**Tanzilli, S.**

**Ten, S.**

**Thew, R. T.**

- R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071104 (2008). [CrossRef]

**Tittel, W.**

**Tokura, Y.**

**Towery, C. R.**

**Vandevender, A. P.**

- A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt.51, 1433–1445 (2004).

**Vannel, F.**

**Walenta, N.**

**Wan, X.**

**Wang, J.**

**Wang, J. H.**

**Wang, S.**

**Wen, K.**

**Wong, F. N. C.**

**Wu, E.**

**Yamamoto, T.**

**Yamamoto, Y.**

**Yang, L.**

**Yao, L.**

**Yin, Z. Q.**

**Yu, L.**

**Yuan, Z. L.**

**Zaske, S.**

**Zbinden, H.**

**Zeng, H.**

**Zhang, Q.**

**Zhou, Z.**

### Appl. Phys. Lett.

### J. Mod. Opt.

### Nat Commun

### Nat. Photonics

- R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 696–705 (2009). [CrossRef]

### Nature

### New J. Phys.

### Opt. Express

- A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynesl, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy QKD with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express16, 18790–18979 (2008).
- Y. Liu, T. Y. Chen, J. Wang, W. Q. Cai, X. Wan, L. K. Chen, J. H. Wang, S. B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C. Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z. B. Chen, and J. W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express18(8), 8587–8594 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

### Opt. Lett.

- M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 microm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett.29(13), 1449–1451 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Wang, W. Chen, J. F. Guo, Z. Q. Yin, H. W. Li, Z. Zhou, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, “2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1008–1010 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Kumar, “Quantum frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett.15(24), 1476–1478 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

### Phys. Rep.

### Phys. Rev. Lett.

- H. Takesue, “Erasing distinguishability using quantum frequency up-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(17), 173901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

### Other

- Princeton Instruments, “Spectroscopy Cameras PyLoN,” http://www.piacton.com/Uploads/Princeton/Documents/Datasheets/Princeton_Instruments_PyLoN-IR_RevN2_9_23_12.pdf .
- All pump power mentioned below is measured by a power meter after the DM.
- P. A. Jansson, Deconvolution of Images and Spectra (Academic Press, 1997), Chap. 14.
- ID Quantique Inc, Geneva, Switzerland, “id100ID210/ID220 SERIES SELECTION GUIDE,” http://www.idquantique.com/images/stories/PDF/id220-single-photon-counter/id220-specs.pdf .

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**2012, Pelc, Opt. Express**

**2012, Ma, Phys. Rep.**

**2012, Zaske, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2012, Pelc, Opt. Express**

**2012, Wang, Opt. Lett.**

**2011, Namekata, Opt. Express**

**2011, Pelc, Opt. Express**

**2011, Ikuta, Nat Commun**

**2010, Rakher, Nat. Photonics**

**2010, Liu, Opt. Express**

**2009, Stucki, New J. Phys.**

**2009, Hadfield, Nat. Photonics**

**2009, Zhang, New J. Phys.**

**2009, Ma, Opt. Express**

**2008, Zhang, Opt. Express**

**2008, Takesue, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2008, Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**2008, Thew, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**2008, Kamada, Opt. Lett.**

**2008, Dixon, Opt. Express**

**2007, Takesue, Nat. Photonics**

**2005, Langrock, Opt. Lett.**

**2005, Tanzilli, Nature**

**2004, Albota, Opt. Lett.**

**2004, Vandevender, J. Mod. Opt.**

**1990, Kumar, Opt. Lett.**

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