OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 13 — Jul. 1, 2013
  • pp: 15075–15080

Dark surface waves in self-focusing media with diffusion and photovoltaic nonlinearities

Zhonghao Luo, Fangli Liu, Yuhui Xu, Haoyu Liu, Tianhao Zhang, Jingjun Xu, and Jianguo Tian  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 13, pp. 15075-15080 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1137 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Dark surface waves with photorefractive diffusion and photovoltaic nonlinearities are predicted for the first time. We find it is extraordinary that this type of dark surface waves should be in self-focusing media, which is very different from the surface dark solitons or other nonlinear dark surface waves. An oscillator model is proposed by which the above extraordinary phenomenon is demonstrated. In this model an equivalent force function is established, whose form determines the varieties of surface waves (bright surface waves, dark surface waves or others).

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(190.4350) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics at surfaces
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: February 1, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 30, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 30, 2013
Published: June 17, 2013

Zhonghao Luo, Fangli Liu, Yuhui Xu, Haoyu Liu, Tianhao Zhang, Jingjun Xu, and Jianguo Tian, "Dark surface waves in self-focusing media with diffusion and photovoltaic nonlinearities," Opt. Express 21, 15075-15080 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1605–1607 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Mihalache, M. Bertolotti, and C. Sibilia, “Nonlinear wave propagation in planar structures,” P. Prog. Opt.27, 229–313 (1989).
  3. P. Varatharajah, A. Aceves, J. V. Moloney, D. R. Heatley, and E. M. Wright, “Stationary nonlinear surface waves and their stability in diffusive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett.13(8), 690–692 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).
  5. M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2075–2077 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, “Diffraction-free planar beams in unbiased photorefractive media,” Opt. Lett.21(18), 1460–1462 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3298–3300 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Safioui, E. Fazio, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Surface-wave pyroelectric photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1254–1256 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. C. Valley, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A50(6), R4457–R4460 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, “Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. B12(9), 1628–1633 (1995). [CrossRef]
  19. W. Q. Chen, X. Yang, S. Y. Zhong, Z. Yan, T. H. Zhang, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Surface dark screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3801–3803 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. V. Kartashov, F. W. Ye, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface waves in defocusing thermal media,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2260–2262 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. R. Skinner and D. R. Andersen, “Stationary fundamental dark surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8(4), 759–764 (1991). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. J. Chen, “Bright and dark surface waves at a nonlinear interface,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4974–4978 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. J. Chen, “Stability of bright and dark surface waves,” J. Opt. Soc. B10(6), 1077–1080 (1993). [CrossRef]
  24. T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A76(1), 013827 (2007). [CrossRef]
  25. C. Anastassiou, M. F. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. G. Chen, and M. Segev, “Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition,” Opt. Lett.23(12), 924–926 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited