OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 13 — Jul. 1, 2013
  • pp: 16210–16221

Matching p-i-n-junctions and optical modes enables fast and ultra-small silicon modulators

Stefan Meister, Hanjo Rhee, Aws Al-Saadi, Bülent A. Franke, Sebastian Kupijai, Christoph Theiss, Lars Zimmermann, Bernd Tillack, Harald H. Richter, Hui Tian, David Stolarek, Thomas Schneider, Ulrike Woggon, and Hans J. Eichler  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 13, pp. 16210-16221 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1695 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this article a new method is presented that allows for low loss implementation of fast carrier transport structures in diffraction limited photonic crystal resonators. We utilize a ‘node-matched doping’ process in which precise silicon doping results in comb-like shaped, highly-doped diode areas that are matched to the spatial field distribution of the optical modes of a Fabry-Pérot resonator. While the doping is only applied to areas with low optical field strength, the intrinsic diode region overlaps with an optical field maximum. The presented node-matched diode-modulators, combining small size, high-speed, thermal stability and energy-efficient switching could become the centerpiece for monolithically integrated transceivers.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.5296) Integrated optics : Photonic crystal waveguides
(130.4110) Integrated optics : Modulators

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: May 3, 2013
Revised Manuscript: June 21, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: June 21, 2013
Published: June 28, 2013

Stefan Meister, Hanjo Rhee, Aws Al-Saadi, Bülent A. Franke, Sebastian Kupijai, Christoph Theiss, Lars Zimmermann, Bernd Tillack, Harald H. Richter, Hui Tian, David Stolarek, Thomas Schneider, Ulrike Woggon, and Hans J. Eichler, "Matching p-i-n-junctions and optical modes enables fast and ultra-small silicon modulators," Opt. Express 21, 16210-16221 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 498–499 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Electrooptic Modulation of Silicon-on-Insulator Submicrometer-Size Waveguide Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(10), 2332–2339 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Low-Power-Consumption Short-Length and High-Modulation-Depth Silicon Electrooptic Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(4), 1089–1098 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator substrates using cavities with ultra-small modal volumes,” Opt. Express15(6), 3140–3148 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature390(6656), 143–145 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Al-Saadi, H. J. Eichler, and S. Meister, “High Speed Silicon Electro-Optic Modulator with p-i-n Comb Diode,” Opt. Quantum Electron.44(3-5), 125–131 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Meister, A. Al-Saadi, B. A. Franke, S. Mahdi, B. Kuhlow, K. Voigt, B. Tillack, H. H. Richter, L. Zimmermann, V. Ksianzou, S. K. Schrader, and H. J. Eichler, “Photonic crystal microcavities in SOI waveguides produced in a CMOS environment,” Proc. SPIE7606, 760616 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-High Q/V Fabry-Perot microcavity on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express15(24), 16090–16096 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. J. P. Lorenzo and R. A. Soref, “1.3 µm electro-optic silicon switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(1), 6–8 (1987). [CrossRef]
  14. F. Gardes, G. Reed, N. Emerson, and C. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express13(22), 8845–8854 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. S. Li and W. R. Thurder, “The dopant density and temperature dependence of electron mobility and resistivity in n-type silicon,” Solid-State Electron.20(7), 609–616 (1977). [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Dorkel and P. Leturcq, “Carrier mobilities in silicon semi-empirically related to temperature, doping and injection level,” Solid-State Electron.24(9), 821–825 (1981). [CrossRef]
  17. W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15(25), 17106–17113 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High Speed Carrier Injection 18 Gb/s Silicon Micro-ring Electro-optic Modulator”, in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (2007), pp. 537–538. [CrossRef]
  19. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express18(4), 3582–3591 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Gajda, L. Zimmermann, J. Bruns, B. Tillack, and K. Petermann, “Design rules for p-i-n diode carriers sweeping in nano-rib waveguides on SOI,” Opt. Express19(10), 9915–9922 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited