OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 14 — Jul. 15, 2013
  • pp: 16914–16927

Attosecond pulse characterization

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 14, pp. 16914-16927 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (6420 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this work we propose a novel procedure for the characterization of attosecond pulses. The method relies on the conversion of the attosecond pulse into electron wave-packets through photoionization of atoms in the presence of a weak IR field. It allows for the unique determination of the spectral phase making up the pulses by accurately taking into account the atomic physics of the photoionization process. The phases are evaluated by optimizing the fit of a perturbation theory calculation to the experimental result. The method has been called iPROOF (improved Phase Retrieval by Omega Oscillation Filtering) as it bears a similarity to the PROOF technique [Chini et al. Opt. Express 18, 13006 (2010)]. The procedure has been demonstrated for the characterization of an attosecond pulse train composed of odd and even harmonics. We observe a large phase shift between consecutive odd and even harmonics. The resulting attosecond pulse train has a complex structure not resembling a single attosecond pulse once per IR period, which is the case for zero phase. Finally, the retrieval procedure can be applied to the characterization of single attosecond pulses as well.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.7240) Lasers and laser optics : UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers
(320.7100) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast measurements

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

Original Manuscript: April 25, 2013
Revised Manuscript: June 11, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: June 18, 2013
Published: July 9, 2013

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, "Attosecond pulse characterization," Opt. Express 21, 16914-16927 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414, 509–513 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A.J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M.F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N.M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K.L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J.J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446, 627–632 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science322, 1525–1529 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science328, 1658–1662 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 143002 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys.7, 428–433 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P.M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature449, 1029–1032 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173903 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and Thomas Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond xuv pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 173904 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovac̆ev, R. Taïeb, B. Carréand, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature427, 817–821 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 033905 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401(R) (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. F. Quéré, Y. Mairesse, and J. Itatani, “Temporal characterization of attosecond XUV fields,” J. Mod. Opt.52, 339–360 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Ge, “Quantum enhancement in laser-assisted photoionization and a method for the measurement of an attosecond XUV pulse,” Phys. Rev. A77, 033851 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V.S. Yakovlev, “The accurate frog characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B92, 25–32 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D. Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42, 134007 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express18, 13006–13016 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Gagnon and V.S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B103, 303–309 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. W. Cao, G. Laurent, C. Jin, H. Li, Z. Wang, C. D. Lin, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Spectral splitting and quantum path study of high-harmonic generation from a semi-infinite gas cell,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 074013 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and therelative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109, 083001 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of Asymmetric Electron Emission in Two-Color Ionization of Helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, K. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds., Vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in Physics (Springer-VerlagBerlin Heidelberg2012), pp. 173–177. [CrossRef]
  25. A. F. Starace, “Theory of Atomic Photoionization,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 31, W. Mehlhorn, ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 1–121.
  26. A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. E. S. Toma and H. G. Muller, “Calculation of matrix elements for mixed extreme-ultravioletinfrared two-photon above-threshold ionization of argon,”J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.35, 3435–3442 (2002). [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.45, 183001 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Dahlström, D. Guenot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys.414, 53–64 (2013). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 013001 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.68, 3477–3484 (1997). [CrossRef]
  32. T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of high-order harmonic generation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A51, 3991–3998 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Routes to control of intense-field atomic polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 2933–2936 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson, “Quantum mechanical approach to probing the birth of attosecond pulses using a two-colour field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44, 095602 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited