OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 16 — Aug. 12, 2013
  • pp: 18754–18764

Stable radio-frequency transfer over optical fiber by phase-conjugate frequency mixing

Yabai He, Brian J. Orr, Kenneth G. H. Baldwin, Michael J. Wouters, Andre N. Luiten, Guido Aben, and R. Bruce Warrington  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 16, pp. 18754-18764 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.018754


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1682 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate long-distance (≥100-km) synchronization of the phase of a radio-frequency reference over an optical-fiber network without needing to actively stabilize the optical path length. Frequency mixing is used to achieve passive phase-conjugate cancellation of fiber-length fluctuations, ensuring that the phase difference between the reference and synchronized oscillators is independent of the link length. The fractional radio-frequency-transfer stability through a 100-km “real-world” urban optical-fiber network is 6 × 10−17 with an averaging time of 104 s. Our compensation technique is robust, providing long-term stability superior to that of a hydrogen maser. By combining our technique with the short-term stability provided by a remote, high-quality quartz oscillator, this system is potentially applicable to transcontinental optical-fiber time and frequency dissemination where the optical round-trip propagation time is significant.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: May 2, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 17, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: July 21, 2013
Published: July 30, 2013

Citation
Yabai He, Brian J. Orr, Kenneth G. H. Baldwin, Michael J. Wouters, Andre N. Luiten, Guido Aben, and R. Bruce Warrington, "Stable radio-frequency transfer over optical fiber by phase-conjugate frequency mixing," Opt. Express 21, 18754-18764 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-16-18754


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(6), 064701 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(2), 021101 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Marra, H. S. Margolis, and D. J. Richardson, “Dissemination of an optical frequency comb over fiber with 3 × 10-18 fractional accuracy,” Opt. Express20(2), 1775–1782 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science336(6080), 441–444 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express20(21), 23518–23526 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P.-E. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Simultaneous remote transfer of accurate timing and optical frequency over a public fiber network,” Appl. Phys. B110(1), 3–6 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10⁻19 accuracy level,” Sci Rep2, 556 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10-17.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(20), 203904 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2 × 10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(1), 35–41 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Musha, F.-L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express16(21), 16459–16466 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett.34(19), 2949–2951 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control57(1), 168–174 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B98(4), 723–727 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Marra, H. S. Margolis, S. N. Lea, and P. Gill, “High-stability microwave frequency transfer by propagation of an optical frequency comb over 50 km of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1025–1027 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Marra, R. Slavík, H. S. Margolis, S. N. Lea, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and P. Gill, “High-resolution microwave frequency transfer over an 86-km-long optical fiber network using a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 511–513 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Active propagation delay stabilization for fiber optic frequency distribution using controlled electronic delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.60(4), 1480–1488 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. M. T. L. Hsu, Y. He, D. A. Shaddock, R. B. Warrington, and M. B. Gray, “All-digital radio-frequency signal distribution via optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(12), 1015–1017 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavać, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia43(1), 109–120 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. B. Ning, P. Du, D. Hou, and J. Zhao, “Phase fluctuation compensation for long-term transfer of stable radio frequency over fiber link,” Opt. Express20(27), 28447–28454 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Zhang, L. Chang, Y. Dong, W. Xie, H. He, and W. Hu, “Phase drift cancellation of remote radio frequency transfer using an optoelectronic delay-locked loop,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 873–875 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. E. Primas, G. F. Lutes, and R. L. Sydnor, “Stabilized fiber-optic frequency distribution system,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report TDA PR 42–97, 88–97 (1989). http://ipnpr.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-97/97H.pdf
  22. M. Calhoun, R. Sydnor, and W. Diener, “A stabilized 100-Megahertz and 1-Gigahertz reference frequency distribution for Cassini radio science,” The Interplanetary Network Progress Report IPN PR 42–148, 1–11 (2002). http://ipnpr.jpl.nasa.gov/progress_report/42-148/148L.pdf
  23. M. T. L. Hsu, I. C. M. Littler, D. A. Shaddock, J. Herrmann, R. B. Warrington, and M. B. Gray, “Subpicometer length measurement using heterodyne laser interferometry and all-digital rf phase meters,” Opt. Lett.35(24), 4202–4204 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. He, M. T. L. Hsu, M. J. Wouters, M. B. Gray, R. B. Warrington, B. J. Orr, D. A. Shaddock, K. G. H. Baldwin, and G. Aben, “An optical fiber-based system for high-stability distribution of reference radio-frequencies,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper C1126. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEOPR-2011-C1126 [CrossRef]
  25. K. G. H. Baldwin, Y. He, M. T. L. Hsu, M. J. Wouters, M. B. Gray, B. J. Orr, A. N. Luiten, S. W. Schediwy, J. H. Chow, D. A. Shaddock, G. Aben, P. T. H. Fisk, and R. B. Warrington, “Analog and all-digital frequency distribution via optical fiber links,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CTh4A.2. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO_SI-2012-CTh4A.2&origin=search [CrossRef]
  26. A. J. Mullavey, B. J. J. Slagmolen, D. A. Shaddock, and D. E. McClelland, “Stable transfer of an optical frequency standard via a 4.6 km optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 5213–5220 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(8), 1284–1293 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited