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Squeezed quadrature fluctuations in a gravitational wave detector using squeezed lightS. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, S. S. Y. Chua, M. Evans, M. Factourovich, D. Gustafson, T. Isogai, K. Kawabe, A. Khalaidovski, P. K. Lam, M. Landry, N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. D. Meadors, C. M. Mow-Lowry, R. Schnabel, R. M. S. Schofield, N. Smith-Lefebvre, M. Stefszky, C. Vorvick, and D. Sigg »View Author Affiliations
S. Dwyer,^{*,}^{1}
L. Barsotti,^{1}
S. S. Y. Chua,^{2}
M. Evans,^{1}
M. Factourovich,^{3}
D. Gustafson,^{4}
T. Isogai,^{1}
K. Kawabe,^{5}
A. Khalaidovski,^{6}
P. K. Lam,^{2}
M. Landry,^{5}
N. Mavalvala,^{1}
D. E. McClelland,^{2}
G. D. Meadors,^{4}
C. M. Mow-Lowry,^{2}
R. Schnabel,^{6}
R. M. S. Schofield,^{7}
N. Smith-Lefebvre,^{1}
M. Stefszky,^{2}
C. Vorvick,^{5}
and D. Sigg^{5}
^{1}LIGO - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA ^{2}Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia ^{3}Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA ^{4}University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ^{5}LIGO - Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA ^{6}Albert-Einstein-Institut, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Max-Planck-Institut fur Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover, Germany ^{7}University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA ^{*}Corresponding author: sheila.dwyer@ligo.org |
Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 16, pp. 19047-19060 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.019047
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Abstract
Squeezed states of light are an important tool for optical measurements below the shot noise limit and for optical realizations of quantum information systems. Recently, squeezed vacuum states were deployed to enhance the shot noise limited performance of gravitational wave detectors. In most practical implementations of squeezing enhancement, relative fluctuations between the squeezed quadrature angle and the measured quadrature (sometimes called squeezing angle jitter or phase noise) are one limit to the noise reduction that can be achieved. We present calculations of several effects that lead to quadrature fluctuations, and use these estimates to account for the observed quadrature fluctuations in a LIGO gravitational wave detector. We discuss the implications of this work for quantum enhanced advanced detectors and even more sensitive third generation detectors.
© 2013 OSA
OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(270.2500) Quantum optics : Fluctuations, relaxations, and noise
(270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states
(350.1270) Other areas of optics : Astronomy and astrophysics
ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology
History
Original Manuscript: June 11, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 25, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: July 26, 2013
Published: August 2, 2013
Citation
S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, S. S. Y. Chua, M. Evans, M. Factourovich, D. Gustafson, T. Isogai, K. Kawabe, A. Khalaidovski, P. K. Lam, M. Landry, N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. D. Meadors, C. M. Mow-Lowry, R. Schnabel, R. M. S. Schofield, N. Smith-Lefebvre, M. Stefszky, C. Vorvick, and D. Sigg, "Squeezed quadrature fluctuations in a gravitational wave detector using squeezed light," Opt. Express 21, 19047-19060 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-16-19047
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- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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- B. Buchler, “Electro-optic control of quantum measurements,” Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University (2001).
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from a below threshold optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.1, 469–474 (1999). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
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- C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D23, 1693 (1981). [CrossRef]
- S. Chelkowski, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of broadband vacuum squeezing,” Phys. Rev. A75, 043814 (2007). [CrossRef]
- H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 011101 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D.E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, “Advanced interferometry, quantum optics and optomechanics in gravitational wave detectors,” Laser and Photonics Rev.5, 677–696 (2011).
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
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- M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A30, 1386–1391 (1984). [CrossRef]
- D. D. Crouch and S. L. Braunstein, “Limitations to squeezing in a parametric amplifier due to pump quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A38, 4696–4711 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. Chelkowski, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of broadband vacuum squeezing,” Phys. Rev. A75, 043814 (2007). [CrossRef]
- H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 011101 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurásek, and R. Schnabel, “Experimental demonstration of continuous variable purification of squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 150505 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. Chua, M. Stefszky, C. Mow-Lowry, B. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. McClelland, “Backscatter tolerant squeezed light source for advanced gravitational-wave detectors,” Opt. Lett.36(23) 4680–4682 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurásek, and R. Schnabel, “Experimental demonstration of continuous variable purification of squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 150505 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurásek, and R. Schnabel, “Experimental demonstration of continuous variable purification of squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 150505 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 011101 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from a below threshold optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.1, 469–474 (1999). [CrossRef]
- C. W. Gardiner and M. J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and the master equation,” Phys. Rev. A31, 3761–3774 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A30, 1386–1391 (1984). [CrossRef]
- J. Gea-Banacloche and M. S. Zubairy, “Influence of pump-phase fluctuations on the squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A42, 1742–1751 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, M. B. Gray, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Nonlinear phase matching locking via optical readout,” Opt. Express14, 11256–11264 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurásek, and R. Schnabel, “Experimental demonstration of continuous variable purification of squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 150505 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 011101 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- G. M. Harry, (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quant. Grav.27, 084006 (2010). [CrossRef]
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- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- A Khalaidovski, “Beyond the quantum limit: A squeezed light laser in GEO600,” Ph.D. thesis, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover (2011).
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. Chua, M. Stefszky, C. Mow-Lowry, B. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. McClelland, “Backscatter tolerant squeezed light source for advanced gravitational-wave detectors,” Opt. Lett.36(23) 4680–4682 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, M. B. Gray, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Nonlinear phase matching locking via optical readout,” Opt. Express14, 11256–11264 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from a below threshold optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.1, 469–474 (1999). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, D.E. McClelland, and P.K. Lam, “Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy,” Nat. Commun.1, 121. (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- D.E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, “Advanced interferometry, quantum optics and optomechanics in gravitational wave detectors,” Laser and Photonics Rev.5, 677–696 (2011).
- R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, D.E. McClelland, and P.K. Lam, “Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy,” Nat. Commun.1, 121. (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, M. B. Gray, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Nonlinear phase matching locking via optical readout,” Opt. Express14, 11256–11264 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from a below threshold optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.1, 469–474 (1999). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- D.E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, “Advanced interferometry, quantum optics and optomechanics in gravitational wave detectors,” Laser and Photonics Rev.5, 677–696 (2011).
- R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, D.E. McClelland, and P.K. Lam, “Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy,” Nat. Commun.1, 121. (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, M. B. Gray, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Nonlinear phase matching locking via optical readout,” Opt. Express14, 11256–11264 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational wave detection band,” Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University (2008).
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from a below threshold optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.1, 469–474 (1999). [CrossRef]
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- D.E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, “Advanced interferometry, quantum optics and optomechanics in gravitational wave detectors,” Laser and Photonics Rev.5, 677–696 (2011).
- R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, D.E. McClelland, and P.K. Lam, “Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy,” Nat. Commun.1, 121. (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
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- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Chelkowski, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of broadband vacuum squeezing,” Phys. Rev. A75, 043814 (2007). [CrossRef]
- H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 011101 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Wódkiewicz and M. S. Zubairy, “Effect of laser fluctuations on squeezed states in a degenerate parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2003–2007 (1983). [CrossRef]
- J. Gea-Banacloche and M. S. Zubairy, “Influence of pump-phase fluctuations on the squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A42, 1742–1751 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Wódkiewicz and M. S. Zubairy, “Effect of laser fluctuations on squeezed states in a degenerate parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2003–2007 (1983). [CrossRef]
Class. and Quant. Grav.
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
Class. Quant. Grav.
- G. M. Harry, (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quant. Grav.27, 084006 (2010). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.
- P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from a below threshold optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.1, 469–474 (1999). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
Laser and Photonics Rev.
- D.E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, “Advanced interferometry, quantum optics and optomechanics in gravitational wave detectors,” Laser and Photonics Rev.5, 677–696 (2011).
Nat. Commun.
- R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, D.E. McClelland, and P.K. Lam, “Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy,” Nat. Commun.1, 121. (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nature Photon.
- LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light,” Nature Photon. doi:(2013). [CrossRef]
Nature Phys.
- LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit,” Nature Phys.7(12) 962–965 (2011).
Opt. Express
- T. Aoki, G. Takahashi, and A. Furasawa, “Squeezing at 946 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Express14(15), 6930–6935 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Takeno, M. Yukawa, H. Yonezawa, and A. Furusawa, “Observation of −9 dB quadrature squeezing with improvement of phase stability in homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express15, 4321–4327 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, M. B. Gray, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Nonlinear phase matching locking via optical readout,” Opt. Express14, 11256–11264 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Opt. Lett.
- S. Chua, M. Stefszky, C. Mow-Lowry, B. Buchler, S. Dwyer, D. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. McClelland, “Backscatter tolerant squeezed light source for advanced gravitational-wave detectors,” Opt. Lett.36(23) 4680–4682 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Phys. Rev. A
- S. Chelkowski, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of broadband vacuum squeezing,” Phys. Rev. A75, 043814 (2007). [CrossRef]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- J. Gea-Banacloche and M. S. Zubairy, “Influence of pump-phase fluctuations on the squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A42, 1742–1751 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A30, 1386–1391 (1984). [CrossRef]
- C. W. Gardiner and M. J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and the master equation,” Phys. Rev. A31, 3761–3774 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. M. Caves and B. L. Schumaker, “New formalism for two-photon quantum optics. I. Quadrature phases and squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A31, 3068–3092 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Wódkiewicz and M. S. Zubairy, “Effect of laser fluctuations on squeezed states in a degenerate parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2003–2007 (1983). [CrossRef]
- D. D. Crouch and S. L. Braunstein, “Limitations to squeezing in a parametric amplifier due to pump quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A38, 4696–4711 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Phys. Rev. D
- C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D23, 1693 (1981). [CrossRef]
Phys. Rev. Lett.
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurásek, and R. Schnabel, “Experimental demonstration of continuous variable purification of squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 150505 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 011101 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rep. Prog. Phys.
- The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, , “LIGO: The laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Rep. Prog. Phys.72, 076901 (2009).
Other
- S. S. Y. Chua, S. Dwyer, L. Barsotti, D. Sigg, R. M. S. Schofield, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, M. Evans, G. D. Meadors, M. Factourovich, R. Gustafson, C. Vorvick, M. Landry, A. Khalaidovski, M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of backscattered-light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector,”
- K. McKenzie, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational wave detection band,” Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University (2008).
- B. Buchler, “Electro-optic control of quantum measurements,” Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University (2001).
- A Khalaidovski, “Beyond the quantum limit: A squeezed light laser in GEO600,” Ph.D. thesis, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover (2011).
- Einstein gravitational wave telescope conceptual design study. https://tds.ego-gw.it/ql/?c=7954
2013, , Nature Photon.
- LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light,” Nature Photon. doi:(2013). [CrossRef]
- H Grote, K Danzmann, K Dooley, R Schnabel, J Slutzky, and H Vahlbruch, “First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 181101 (2013). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Stefszky, C. M. Mow-Lowry, S. S. Y. Chua, D. A. Shaddock, B. C. Buchler, H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, R. Schnabel, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Balanced homodyne detection of optical quantum states at audio-band frequencies and below,” Class. Quant. Grav.29, 145015–145029. (2012). [CrossRef]
- T. T. Fricke, N. D. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. L. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. S. Kissel, B. J. J. Slagmolen, and S. J. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 065005 (2012). [CrossRef]
- A. Khalaidovski, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, H. Grote, and R. Schnabel, “Long-term stable squeezed vacuum state of light for gravitational wave detectors,” Class. and Quant. Grav.29, 075001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit,” Nature Phys.7(12) 962–965 (2011).
- D.E. McClelland, N. Mavalvala, Y. Chen, and R. Schnabel, “Advanced interferometry, quantum optics and optomechanics in gravitational wave detectors,” Laser and Photonics Rev.5, 677–696 (2011).
- R. Schnabel, N. Mavalvala, D.E. McClelland, and P.K. Lam, “Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy,” Nat. Commun.1, 121. (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Händchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehment, H. Müller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 25, 251102 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- G. M. Harry, (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quant. Grav.27, 084006 (2010). [CrossRef]
- The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, , “LIGO: The laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Rep. Prog. Phys.72, 076901 (2009).
- S. Chelkowski, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of broadband vacuum squeezing,” Phys. Rev. A75, 043814 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. Franzen, B. Hage, J. DiGuglielmo, J. Fiurásek, and R. Schnabel, “Experimental demonstration of continuous variable purification of squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 150505 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 011101 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, K. Goda, P. K. Lam, N. Grosse, M. B. Gray, N. Mavalvala, and D. E. McClelland, “Quantum noise locking,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.7, S421 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. Goda, K. McKenzie, E. E. Mikhailov, P. K. Lam, D. E. McClelland, and N. Mavalvala, “Photothermal fluctuations as a fundamental limit to low-frequency squeezing in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A72, 043819 (2005). [CrossRef]
- K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 161105 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, “Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from a below threshold optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. B: Quantum S. O.1, 469–474 (1999). [CrossRef]
- J. Gea-Banacloche and M. S. Zubairy, “Influence of pump-phase fluctuations on the squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A42, 1742–1751 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. D. Crouch and S. L. Braunstein, “Limitations to squeezing in a parametric amplifier due to pump quantum fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A38, 4696–4711 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. M. Caves and B. L. Schumaker, “New formalism for two-photon quantum optics. I. Quadrature phases and squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A31, 3068–3092 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. W. Gardiner and M. J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and the master equation,” Phys. Rev. A31, 3761–3774 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, “Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification,” Phys. Rev. A30, 1386–1391 (1984). [CrossRef]
- K. Wódkiewicz and M. S. Zubairy, “Effect of laser fluctuations on squeezed states in a degenerate parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A27, 2003–2007 (1983). [CrossRef]
- C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D23, 1693 (1981). [CrossRef]
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