OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 18 — Sep. 9, 2013
  • pp: 20747–20761

Characterization of energy-efficient and colorless ONUs for future TWDM-PONs

Elaine Wong, Michael Mueller, and Markus C. Amann  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 18, pp. 20747-20761 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2179 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The Full Services Access Network group has recently selected the time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) as the base technology solution for next-generation PON stage-2 (NG-PON2). Meeting the core requirements of NG-PON2 necessitates the following additional features in the transceivers of the optical network unit (ONU) that is located at subscriber premises: (a) legacy system compliant; (b) wavelength tunable; (c) cost-efficient; and (d) energy-efficient. To address these features, we investigate the properties of short-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (SC-VCSELs) for implementation as colorless ONU transmitters in future TWDM-PONs. Specifically, we investigate the tunability and transmission performance of the SC-VCSEL across the C-minus wavelength band for legacy system compliance. We report on error-free transmission across a 800 GHz tuning range with a potential aggregate upstream capacity of 80 Gbps over a system reach of 40 km and with a split ratio of 1:128 per wavelength channel. Results were achieved without dispersion compensation and electronic equalization. We also evaluate the energy efficiency of the SC-VCSEL in active, doze, and sleep mode. When in active mode, the SC-VCSEL transmitter block consumes 91.7% less power than a distributed feedback (DFB) laser transmitter block. When transitioning between doze and active modes, the transmitter block has a short settling time of only 205 ns, thus increasing the power-saving duration and consequently reducing the overall power consumption of the ONU. Through numerical analysis, evaluation of the energy-savings of the SC-VCSEL ONU over the DFB ONU under various modes of operation, demonstrates up to 84% of energy-savings. The capacity, tuning range, split ratio, system reach, and energy-savings arising from SC-VCSEL ONU implementation as reported in this work, exceed the minimum requirements of NG-PON2 for future TWDM-PON deployments.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: May 23, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 24, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 15, 2013
Published: August 28, 2013

Elaine Wong, Michael Mueller, and Markus C. Amann, "Characterization of energy-efficient and colorless ONUs for future TWDM-PONs," Opt. Express 21, 20747-20761 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. Nakamura, “NG-PON2 Technology,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, USA, NTh4F.5, (2013).
  2. Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) for Next-Generation PON Stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 587–593 (2013). [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Kumar, R. Murano, M. Cahill, J. Aufiero, and G. Bartolini, “Crosstalk performance analysis of low cost 8 X 10 Gb/s tunable receiver for TWDM-PON,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, USA, NTh3F.5 (2013).
  4. H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, T. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, “Wavelength-tunable DWDM-SFP transceiver with a signal monitoring interface and its application to coexistence-type colorless WDM-PON,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., PD3.4 (2007).
  5. C. Chang-Hasnain, “Optically-injection locked tunable multimode VCSEL for WDM passive optical networks,” in Proc. Int. Nano-Optoelectron. Workshop (i-NOW), 98–99 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Mukai, T. Fumihiko, and J. Nakagawa, “Energy-efficient 10G-EPON system,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, USA, OW3G.1 (2013).
  7. E. Wong, M. Mueller, M. P. I. Dias, C. A. Chan, and M. C. Amann, “Energy-efficiency of optical network units with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 14960–14970 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, and C. J. Chae, “Extended-reach 10 Gb/s RSOA-based WDM-PON using partial response equalization, ” Proc. of 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society,345 – 346(2010). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Katagiri, K. Suzuki, and K. Aida, “Intensity stabilisation of spectrum-sliced Gaussian radiation based on amplitude squeezing using semiconductor optical amplifiers with gain saturation,” Electron. Lett.35(16), 1362–1364 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. H. D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, and C.-H. Lee, “A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(8), 1067–1069 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Wong, K. L. Lee, and T. A. Anderson, “Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 67–74 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Hann, T.-Y. Kim, and C.-S. Park, “Direct-modulated upstream signal transmission using a self-injection locked F-P LD for WDM-PON,” Proc. European Conf. of Communications (ECOC), We3.3.3 (2005) [CrossRef]
  13. M. Mueller, W. Hofmann, T. Grundl, M. Horn, P. Wolf, R. D. Nagel, E. Ronneberg, G. Bohm, D. Bimberg, and M. C. Amann, “1550nm high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.99, 1158–1166 (2011).
  14. M.-C. Amann, E. Wong, and M. Mueller, “Energy-efficient high-speed short-cavity VCSELs,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, OTh4F.1 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. W. Hofmann, M. Muller, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, and M.-C. Amann, “1.55um VCSEL with enhanced modulation bandwidth and temperature range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(13), 923–925 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Mueller and M. C. Amann, “State-of-the-art and perspectives for long-wavelength high-speed VCSELs,” in Proceedings of Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) 2011, Mo.C5.2 (2011).
  17. J. Mandin, “EPON powersaving via sleep mode,” IEEE P802.3av 10GEPON Task Force Meeting (2008).
  18. E. Igawa, M. Nogami, and J. Nakagawa, “Symmetric 10G-EPON ONU BMT employing dynamic power save control circuit,” Proc. of IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, USA, NTuD5 (2011).
  19. Analog Devices ADN2531 data sheet, [Online]. Available: http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/data_sheets/ADN2531.pdf”.
  20. NEL Laser Diodes, [Online]. Available: http://www.nttelectronics.com/en/products/photonics/pdf/NLK5C5EBKA.pdf”.
  21. Analog Devices ADN2530 data sheet, [Online]. Available: http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/data_sheets/ADN2530.pdf”.
  22. S.-W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. L. S. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Zhang, C. Yu, J. McGeehan, L. Paraschis, and A. E. Willner, “Reach extension in 10-Gb/s directly modulated transmission systems using asymmetric and narrowband optical filtering,” Opt. Express13(13), 5106–5115 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. B. Gibbon, K. Prince, T. T. Pham, A. Tatarczak, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSEL transmission at 10 Gb/s for 20 km single mode fiber WDM-PON without dispersion compensation or injection locking,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17(1), 41–45 (2011). [CrossRef]
  25. FEC ITU-T G.975.1, Forward error correction for high bit rate DWDM submarine systems [S], (2003).
  26. B. Skubic and D. Hood, “A comparison of DBA for EPON, GPON, and NG TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag.47, 540–548 (2009).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited