OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 18 — Sep. 9, 2013
  • pp: 21264–21272

Pulfrich autostereo display with micro-prism array

Chien-Yue Chen, Ming-Da Ke, Qing-Long Deng, and Jhih-Kai Siao  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 18, pp. 21264-21272 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1195 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A micro-prism film, with spectral characteristics, is attached on a display panel to show images appearing with + 10° ~ + 50° and −10° ~-50° bright regions and with a + 10° ~-10° dark region. When both eyes separately receive the bright region and the dark region of an image, interocular delay would appear to generate a stereo perception. With the optical simulation software, LightTools 7.3.0, to simulate the brightness change, the light with lower brightness appears on the 0° region and the light with the highest brightness appears on the ± 10° region. The optimal viewing distance of 25cm could accurately deliver the image with shading parallax to both eyes. The actual measurement of brightness presents the shading distribution, achieving the condition of binocular retinal illumination, and the angle of visibility appears on the ± 50° region, causing interocular delay so that the viewer generates the stereo perception.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(220.4830) Optical design and fabrication : Systems design
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(330.5020) Vision, color, and visual optics : Perception psychology
(330.5380) Vision, color, and visual optics : Physiology

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: July 9, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 21, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 22, 2013
Published: September 4, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Chien-Yue Chen, Ming-Da Ke, Qing-Long Deng, and Jhih-Kai Siao, "Pulfrich autostereo display with micro-prism array," Opt. Express 21, 21264-21272 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Hong, Y. Kim, H. J. Choi, J. Hahn, J. H. Park, H. Kim, S. W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt.50(34), H87–H115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Lambooij, M. Fortuin, I. Heynderickx, and W. IJsselsteijn, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: A review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol.53(3), 030201 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis.8(3), 1–30 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Speranza, W. J. Tam, R. Renaud, and N. Hur, “Effect of disparity and motion on visual comfort of stereoscopic images,” Proc. SPIE6055, 94–103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Richard, Gregory, “Seeing brightness and movement,” in Handbook of Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing, 5th ed. (Princeton University Press, 1997).
  6. C. Pulfrich, “Die Stereoskopie im Dienste der isochromen und heterochromen Photometrie,” Naturwissenschaften10(35), 751–761 (1922). [CrossRef]
  7. M. S. Katz and I. R. A. Schwartz, “New observation of the Pulfrich effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45(7), 523–524 (1955). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Jacobs and R. Karpf, “Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles for mobile devices,” Proc. SPIE8304, 830406-1–830406-10 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Scher, J. Liu, R. Vaish, P. Gunawardane, and J. Davis, “3D+ 2DTV: 3D displays with no ghosting for viewers without glasses,” ACM Trans. Graph.32(3), 1–10 (2013). [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Morgan and P. Thompson, “Apparent motion and the Pulfrich effect,” Perception4(1), 3–18 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “How does binocular delay give information about depth?” Vision Res.19(5), 523–532 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Ross, “Stereopsis by binocular delay,” Nature248(446), 363–364 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. J. Morgan, “Perception of continuity in stroboscopic motion: A temporal frequency analysis,” Vision Res.19(5), 491–500 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. M. Scotcher, D. A. H. Laidlaw, C. R. Canning, M. J. Weal, and R. A. Harrad, “Pulfrich’s phenomenon in unilateral cataract,” Br. J. Ophthalmol.81(12), 1050–1055 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. E. Slagsvold, “Pulfrich pendulum phenomenon in patients with a history of acute optic neuritis,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.)56(5), 817–826 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Rushton, “Use of the Pulfrich pendulum for detecting abnormal delay in the visual pathway in multiple sclerosis,” Brain98(2), 283–296 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Lit, “Magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of target thickness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.50(4), 321–327 (1960). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. L. Diamond, “Simultaneous brightness contrast and the Pulfrich phenomenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.48(12), 887–890 (1958). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chang, M. D. Ke, C. C. Lin, and Y. M. Chen, “A novel high brightness parallax barrier stereoscopy technology using a reflective crown grating,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.50(6), 1610–1616 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 347–353 (2005). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. G. Lee and J. B. Ra, “Image distortion correction for lenticula misalignment in three-dimensional lenticular displays,” Opt. Eng.45(1), 017007 (2006). [CrossRef]
  22. F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2–3), 99–108 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa, and R. D. Freeman, “Neural mechanisms underlying binocular fusion and stereopsis: position vs. phase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.94(10), 5438–5443 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Carney, M. A. Paradiso, and R. D. Freeman, “A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat,” Vision Res.29(2), 155–165 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. E. Brigham, J. C. Schultz, and B. L. Weaver, “Stereoscopic 3D liquid crystal display apparatus with scanning backlight,” U.S. Patent 2008/0084519 A1 (Apr. 10, 2008).
  26. C. Y. Chen, T. T. Yang, and W. S. Sun, “Optics system design applying a micro-prism array of a single lens stereo image pair,” Opt. Express16(20), 15495–15505 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. T. Pourazad, P. Nasiopoulos, and R. K. Ward, “An H.264-based scheme for 2D to 3D video conversion,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.55(2), 742–748 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. C. Lee, G. Seo, J. Lee, T. H. Han, and J. G. Park, “Auto-stereoscopic 3D displays with reduced crosstalk,” Opt. Express19(24), 24762–24774 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. J. Morgan and R. J. Watt, “Mechanisms of interpolation in human spatial vision,” Nature299(5883), 553–555 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Lit and A. Hyman, “The magnitude of the Pulfrich stereophenomenon as a function of distance of observation,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.28(11), 564–580 (1951). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying 3 dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 502–523 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays,” Displays25(2), 99–108 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited