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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 18 — Sep. 9, 2013
  • pp: 21556–21568

Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics

Lee Carroll, Dario Gerace, Ilaria Cristiani, Sylvie Menezo, and Lucio C. Andreani  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 18, pp. 21556-21568 (2013)

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Polarization-diversity couplers, which are designed to couple the unknown polarization state of an optical fiber into the TE-polarized modes of integrated waveguides, are important for the development of practical all-optical circuits. We describe the use of a full 3D finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation campaign to rigorously optimize the 2D photonic crystal grating that couples a single-mode telecom fiber to the silicon waveguides of a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform. With this approach we identify the unique optimum combination of etch-depth, hole-radius, and grating-pitch of the photonic crystal array for best performance at 1550 nm. The mean (polarization-averaged) coupling efficiency of 48% (−3.2dB) exceeds reported efficiencies of analogous couplers, and has only a marginal dependence on the polarization state of the input fiber (48 ± 3%). In addition, 3D-FDTD calculations are used to characterize the propagation direction, mode-profile, and polarization of light coupled from the fiber into the SOI slab. Such information is crucial for component design and goes beyond previously available results from existing approximations and simulations of 2D-grating coupler performance. Calculations of photonic mode dispersion in the grating coupler, by means of guided-mode expansion, indicate that the coupling is due to an optically active resonant guided mode in the photonic crystal array. This points towards a fast optimization scheme that enhances both the performance and the physical interpretation of 3D-FDTD simulations.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.1750) Integrated optics : Components
(050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
(050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals
(130.5440) Integrated optics : Polarization-selective devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: April 29, 2013
Revised Manuscript: June 3, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: July 15, 2013
Published: September 6, 2013

Lee Carroll, Dario Gerace, Ilaria Cristiani, Sylvie Menezo, and Lucio C. Andreani, "Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics," Opt. Express 21, 21556-21568 (2013)

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