OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 2 — Jan. 28, 2013
  • pp: 2065–2071

Optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise

Ben Wu, Zhenxing Wang, Yue Tian, Mable P. Fok, Bhavin J. Shastri, Daniel R. Kanoff, and Paul R. Prucnal  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 2065-2071 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.002065


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1271 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical steganography method in which a data signal is transmitted using amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as a carrier. The ASE serving as a carrier for the private signal has an identical frequency spectrum to the existing noise generated by the Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in the transmission system. The system also carries a conventional data channel that is not private. The so-called “stealth” or private channel is well-hidden within the noise of the system. Phase modulation is used for both the stealth channel and the public channel. Using homodyne detection, the short coherence length of the ASE ensures that the stealth signal can only be recovered if the receiver closely matches the delay-length difference, which is deliberately changed in a dynamic fashion that is only known to the transmitter and its intended receiver.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2920) Fiber optics and optical communications : Homodyning
(060.4785) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical security and encryption

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 31, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 2, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 3, 2013
Published: January 18, 2013

Citation
Ben Wu, Zhenxing Wang, Yue Tian, Mable P. Fok, Bhavin J. Shastri, Daniel R. Kanoff, and Paul R. Prucnal, "Optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise," Opt. Express 21, 2065-2071 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-2-2065


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. K. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “Demonstration of 20-Gb/s all-optical XOR gate by four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with RZ-DPSK modulated inputs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(3), 897–899 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Vahala, R. Paiella, and G. Hunziker, “Ultrafast WDM logic,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(2), 698–701 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Castro, I. B. Djordjevic, and D. F. Geraghty, “Novel super structured Bragg gratings for optical encryption,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(4), 1875–1885 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. B. B. Wu and E. E. Narimanov, “A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network,” Opt. Express14(9), 3738–3751 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-9-3738 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Z. Wang and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical steganography over a public DPSK channel with asynchronous detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(1), 48–50 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, “Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 480–481 (2007).
  7. B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, “Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA,” in Proc. CLEO/QELS, San Jose, CA, Paper CEF5 (2008).
  8. Y.-K. Huang, B. Wu, I. Glesk, E. E. Narimanov, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, “Combining cryptographic and steganographic security with self-wrapped optical code division multiplexing techniques,” Electron. Lett.43(25), 1449–1451 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. X. Hong, D. Wang, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering,” Opt. Express18(12), 12415–12420 (2010). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-12-12415 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, “A compact and low-latency scheme for optical steganography using chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett.45(3), 179–180 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic network,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security6(3), 725–736 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Communication with chaotic lasers,” Science279(5354), 1198–1200 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. A. Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. G. Ojalvo, C. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fiber-optic links,” Nature438, 343–346 (2006).
  14. J. Liu, Z. M. Wu, and G. Q. Xia, “Dual-channel chaos synchronization and communication based on unidirectionally coupled VCSELs with polarization-rotated optical feedback and polarization-rotated optical injection,” Opt. Express17(15), 12619–12626 (2009), http://8.18.37.105/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-15-12619 . http://8.18.37.105/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-15-12619 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002), Chap. 6.
  16. W. Wells, R. Stone, and E. Miles, “Secure communication by optical homodyne,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.11(5), 770–777 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Yin, P. B. Ruffin, and F. T. S. Yu, Fiber Optic Sensors (CRC, 2008), Chap. 2.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited