OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 2 — Jan. 28, 2013
  • pp: 2072–2082

Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3

Shunbin Lu, Chujun Zhao, Yanhong Zou, Shuqing Chen, Yu Chen, Ying Li, Han Zhang, Shuangchun Wen, and Dingyuan Tang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 2072-2082 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3357 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3, a kind of topological insulator (TI), has been investigated under femto-second laser excitation. The open and closed aperture Z-scan measurements were used to unambiguously distinguish the real and imaginary part of the third order optical nonlinearity of the TI. When excited at 800 nm, the TI exhibits saturable absorption with a saturation intensity of 10.12 GW/cm2 and a modulation depth of 61.2%, and a giant nonlinear refractive index of 10−14 m2/W, almost six orders of magnitude larger than that of bulk dielectrics. This finding suggests that the TI: Bi2Se3 is indeed a promising nonlinear optical material and thus can find potential applications from passive laser mode locker to optical Kerr effect based photonic devices.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: October 24, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 7, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 14, 2012
Published: January 18, 2013

Shunbin Lu, Chujun Zhao, Yanhong Zou, Shuqing Chen, Yu Chen, Ying Li, Han Zhang, Shuangchun Wen, and Dingyuan Tang, "Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3," Opt. Express 21, 2072-2082 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 953–970 (1988). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Chattopadhyay, P. Kumbhakar, C. S. Tiwary, A. K. Mitra, U. Chatterjee, and T. Kobayashi, “Three-photon-induced four-photon absorption and nonlinear refraction in ZnO quantum dots,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3644–3646 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Chattopadhyay, P. Kumbhakar, R. Sarkar, and A. K. Mitra, “Enhanced three-photon absorption and nonlinear refraction in ZnS and Mn 2+ doped ZnS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 163115 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 2166–2168 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3709–3711 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Stable nanosecond pulse generation from a graphene-based passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.36(20), 4008–4010 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, Y. Z. Wu, X. P. Hao, J. L. He, and K. J. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett.36(10), 1948–1950 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express20(21), 23201–23214 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. Kian Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 427–447 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(4), 1057–1110 (2011). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(4), 3045–3067 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.
  21. C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express20(25), 27888–27895 (2012). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Zhao and H. Zhang, X. QiY. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211106 (2012).
  23. J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2407–2414 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]
  25. R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, “Nonlinear refraction in CS2,” Appl. Phys. B78(3–4), 433–438 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(19), 193106 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. R. del Coso and J. Solis, “Relation between nonlinear refractive index and third-order susceptibility in absorbing media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(3), 640–644 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast surface carrier dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett.12(7), 3532–3536 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. A. Sobota, S. Yang, J. G. Analytis, Y. L. Chen, I. R. Fisher, P. S. Kirchmann, and Z. X. Shen, “Ultrafast optical excitation of a persistent surface-state population in the topological insulator Bi2Se3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(11), 117403 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Zhang, C.-X. Liu, X.-L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S.-C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys.5(6), 438–442 (2009). [CrossRef]
  31. R. W. Boyd, S. G. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, Self-focusing: Past and Present: Fundamentals and Prospect (Springer, 2009), Chap. 24.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited