OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 21 — Oct. 21, 2013
  • pp: 25277–25284

Optical limiting effect and ultrafast saturable absorption in a solid PMMA composite containing porphyrin-covalently functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Xiao-Liang Zhang, Zhi-Bo Liu, Xin Zhao, Xiao-Qing Yan, Xiao-Chun Li, and Jian-Guo Tian  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 21, pp. 25277-25284 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1110 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A versatile solid Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) composite containing porphyrin-covalently functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-TPP) was prepared through free radical polymerization without additional dispersion stabilizer. Using nanosecond, femtosecond pulse Z-scan and degenerate femtosecond pump-probe techniques, we studied the optical limiting effect, ultrafast saturable absorption and transient differential transmission of the composite. Results show that the solid composite exhibits weaker optical limiting effects than that of the suspension at 532 nm under nanosecond pulse, due to the absence of nonlinear scattering mechanism. The composite also shows ultrafast saturable absorption with a relaxation time about 190 fs at 800 nm under femtosecond pulse due to band-filling effect, comparably to the suspension. The versatile solid composite can be the candidate for uses in applications of ultrafast optical switching and mode-locking element or optical limiter for nanosecond pulse.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: August 20, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 27, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 30, 2013
Published: October 15, 2013

Xiao-Liang Zhang, Zhi-Bo Liu, Xin Zhao, Xiao-Qing Yan, Xiao-Chun Li, and Jian-Guo Tian, "Optical limiting effect and ultrafast saturable absorption in a solid PMMA composite containing porphyrin-covalently functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes," Opt. Express 21, 25277-25284 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(25), 3632–3634 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. X. Sun, Y. N. Xiong, P. Chen, J. Y. Lin, W. Ji, J. H. Lim, S. S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Investigation of an optical limiting mechanism in multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Opt.39(12), 1998–2001 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).
  5. J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “Passive mode-locked lasing by injecting a carbon nanotube-solution in the core of an optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(11), 11008–11014 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013). [CrossRef]
  14. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of Carbon nanotube poly-methyl-methacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Zhang and L. Wang, “A novel PMMA composite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/copper phthalocyanine hybrid and its optical limiting effect,” Polym-Plast Technol.51(1), 6–11 (2012). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]
  20. X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013). [CrossRef]
  21. C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited