OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 22 — Nov. 4, 2013
  • pp: 26363–26375

Fluence scan: an unexplored property of a laser beam

Jaromír Chalupský, Tomáš Burian, Věra Hájková, Libor Juha, Tomáš Polcar, Jérôme Gaudin, Mitsuru Nagasono, Ryszard Sobierajski, Makina Yabashi, and Jacek Krzywinski  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 22, pp. 26363-26375 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1402 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present an extended theoretical background of so-called fluence scan (f-scan or F-scan) method, which is frequently being used for offline characterization of focused short-wavelength (EUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray) laser beams [J. Chalupský et al., Opt. Express 18, 27836 (2010)]. The method exploits ablative imprints in various solids to visualize iso-fluence beam contours at different fluence and/or clip levels. An f-scan curve (clip level as a function of the corresponding iso-fluence contour area) can be generated for a general non-Gaussian beam. As shown in this paper, fluence scan encompasses important information about energy distribution within the beam profile, which may play an essential role in laser-matter interaction research employing intense non-ideal beams. Here we for the first time discuss fundamental properties of the f-scan function and its inverse counterpart (if-scan). Furthermore, we extensively elucidate how it is related to the effective beam area, energy distribution, and to the so called Liu’s dependence [J. M. Liu, Opt. Lett. 7, 196 (1982)]. A new method of the effective area evaluation based on weighted inverse f-scan fit is introduced and applied to real data obtained at the SCSS (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source) facility.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.2600) Lasers and laser optics : Free-electron lasers (FELs)
(140.7240) Lasers and laser optics : UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
(140.3295) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam characterization

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: July 22, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 12, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 8, 2013
Published: October 25, 2013

Jaromír Chalupský, Tomáš Burian, Věra Hájková, Libor Juha, Tomáš Polcar, Jérôme Gaudin, Mitsuru Nagasono, Ryszard Sobierajski, Makina Yabashi, and Jacek Krzywinski, "Fluence scan: an unexplored property of a laser beam," Opt. Express 21, 26363-26375 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, California 1986).
  2. A. E. Siegman, “How to (maybe) measure laser beam quality,” in DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) Lasers: Applications and Issues, M. Dowley, ed., Vol. 17 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 184–199, paper MQ1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=DLAI-1998-MQ1
  3. M. Kirm, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and R. Sobierajski, “Influence of excitation density on luminescence decay in Y3Al5O12:Ce and BaF2 crystals excited by free electron laser radiation in VUV,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(1), 649–652 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Dong, G. Zhou, J. Xu, G. Zhao, F. Su, L. Su, G. Zhang, D. Zhang, H. Li, and J. Si, “Luminescence studies of Ce:YAG using vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation,” Mater. Res. Bull.41(10), 1959–1963 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Nikl, “Wide band gap scintillation materials: Progress in the technology and material understanding,” Phys. Status Solidi A178(2), 595–620 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hartmann, “Bemerkungen über den Bau und die Justirung von Spektrographen,” Z. Instrum.20, 47–58 (1900).
  7. S. Le Pape, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Idir, P. Dhez, J. J. Rocca, and M. François, “Electromagnetic-field distribution measurements in the soft X-ray range: Full characterization of a soft X-ray laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(18), 183901 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Flöter, P. Juranić, S. Kapitzki, B. Keitel, K. Mann, E. Plönjes, B. Schäfer, and K. Tiedtke, “EUV Hartmann sensor for wavefront measurements at the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg,” New J. Phys.12(8), 083015 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. http://www.andor.com
  10. J. Chalupský, J. Krzywinski, L. Juha, V. Hájková, J. Cihelka, T. Burian, L. Vysín, J. Gaudin, A. Gleeson, M. Jurek, A. R. Khorsand, D. Klinger, H. Wabnitz, R. Sobierajski, M. Störmer, K. Tiedtke, and S. Toleikis, “Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian X-ray laser beams,” Opt. Express18(26), 27836–27845 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-Ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau, “Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids,” Opt. Express15(10), 6036–6043 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Chalupsky, P. Bohacek, V. Hajkova, S. P. Hau-Riege, P. A. Heimann, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, M. Messerschmidt, S. P. Moeller, B. Nagler, M. Rowen, W. F. Schlotter, M. L. Swiggers, and J. J. Turner, “Comparing different approaches to characterization of focused X-ray laser beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A631(1), 130–133 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. J. M. Liu, “Simple technique for measurements of pulsed Gaussian-beam spot sizes,” Opt. Lett.7(5), 196–198 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Shintake, H. Tanaka, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, K. Togawa, M. Yabashi, Y. Otake, Y. Asano, T. Bizen, T. Fukui, S. Goto, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, T. Inagaki, S. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 555–559 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. ISO 11254–1:2000, “Laser and laser-related equipment - Determination of laser-induced damage threshold of optical surfaces - Part 1: 1-on-1 test
  16. S. M. Vinko, O. Ciricosta, B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, H. K. Chung, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, R. W. Falcone, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messerschmidt, C. D. Murphy, Y. Ping, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, P. A. Heimann, B. Nagler, and J. S. Wark, “Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nature482(7383), 59–62 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Ishikawa, H. Aoyagi, T. Asaka, Y. Asano, N. Azumi, T. Bizen, H. Ego, K. Fukami, T. Fukui, Y. Furukawa, S. Goto, H. Hanaki, T. Hara, T. Hasegawa, T. Hatsui, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, M. Ishii, T. Inagaki, Y. Inubushi, T. Itoga, Y. Joti, M. Kago, T. Kameshima, H. Kimura, Y. Kirihara, A. Kiyomichi, T. Kobayashi, C. Kondo, T. Kudo, H. Maesaka, X. M. Marechal, T. Masuda, S. Matsubara, T. Matsumoto, T. Matsushita, S. Matsui, M. Nagasono, N. Nariyama, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, S. Ono, Y. Otake, C. Saji, T. Sakurai, T. Sato, K. Sawada, T. Seike, K. Shirasawa, T. Sugimoto, S. Suzuki, S. Takahashi, H. Takebe, K. Takeshita, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, R. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, T. Togashi, K. Togawa, A. Tokuhisa, H. Tomizawa, K. Tono, S. Wu, M. Yabashi, M. Yamaga, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, T. Shintake, H. Kitamura, and N. Kumagai, “A compact X-ray free-electron laser emitting in the sub-ångström region,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 540–544 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Shintake and SCSS Team, “Status of Japanese XFEL Project and SCSS test accelerator,” Proc. FEL 2006, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 33–36 (2006).
  19. H. Ohashi, Y. Senba, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, T. Kudo, H. Kishimoto, T. Miura, H. Kimura, and T. Ishikawa, “Performance of focusing mirror device in EUV beamline of SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A649(1), 163–165 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited