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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 25 — Dec. 16, 2013
  • pp: 30415–30432

Performance evaluation of a 1.6-µm methane DIAL system from ground, aircraft and UAV platforms

Tamer F. Refaat, Syed Ismail, Amin R. Nehrir, John W. Hair, James H. Crawford, Ira Leifer, and Timothy Shuman  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 25, pp. 30415-30432 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.030415


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Abstract

Methane is an efficient absorber of infrared radiation and a potent greenhouse gas with a warming potential 72 times greater than carbon dioxide on a per molecule basis. Development of methane active remote sensing capability using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique enables scientific assessments of the gas emission and impacts on the climate. A performance evaluation of a pulsed DIAL system for monitoring atmospheric methane is presented. This system leverages a robust injection-seeded pulsed Nd:YAG pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) laser technology operating in the 1.645 µm spectral band. The system also leverages an efficient low noise, commercially available, InGaAs avalanche photo-detector (APD). Lidar signals and error budget are analyzed for system operation on ground in the range-resolved DIAL mode and from airborne platforms in the integrated path DIAL (IPDA) mode. Results indicate system capability of measuring methane concentration profiles with <1.0% total error up to 4.5 km range with 5 minute averaging from ground. For airborne IPDA, the total error in the column dry mixing ratio is less than 0.3% with 0.1 sec average using ground returns. This system has a unique capability of combining signals from the atmospheric scattering from layers above the surface with ground return signals, which provides methane column measurement between the atmospheric scattering layer and the ground directly. In such case 0.5% and 1.2% total errors are achieved with 10 sec average from airborne platforms at 8 km and 15.24 km altitudes, respectively. Due to the pulsed nature of the transmitter, the system is relatively insensitive to aerosol and cloud interferences. Such DIAL system would be ideal for investigating high latitude methane releases over polar ice sheets, permafrost regions, wetlands, and over ocean during day and night. This system would have commercial potential for fossil fuel leaks detection and industrial monitoring applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric composition
(280.1910) Remote sensing and sensors : DIAL, differential absorption lidar
(010.0280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Remote sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: September 6, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 14, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 15, 2013
Published: December 4, 2013

Citation
Tamer F. Refaat, Syed Ismail, Amin R. Nehrir, John W. Hair, James H. Crawford, Ira Leifer, and Timothy Shuman, "Performance evaluation of a 1.6-µm methane DIAL system from ground, aircraft and UAV platforms," Opt. Express 21, 30415-30432 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-25-30415


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