OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 25 — Dec. 16, 2013
  • pp: 31263–31273

Analysis of the depth of field of integral imaging displays based on wave optics

Cheng-Gao Luo, Xiao Xiao, Manuel Martínez-Corral, Chih-Wei Chen, Bahram Javidi, and Qiong-Hua Wang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 25, pp. 31263-31273 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2295 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this paper, we analyze the depth of field (DOF) of integral imaging displays based on wave optics. With considering the diffraction effect, we analyze the intensity distribution of light with multiple micro-lenses and derive a DOF calculation formula for integral imaging display system. We study the variations of DOF values with different system parameters. Experimental results are provided to verify the accuracy of the theoretical analysis. The analyses and experimental results presented in this paper could be beneficial for better understanding and designing of integral imaging displays.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation
(110.3055) Imaging systems : Information theoretical analysis

ToC Category:
Image Processing

Original Manuscript: September 10, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 4, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 5, 2013
Published: December 11, 2013

Cheng-Gao Luo, Xiao Xiao, Manuel Martínez-Corral, Chih-Wei Chen, Bahram Javidi, and Qiong-Hua Wang, "Analysis of the depth of field of integral imaging displays based on wave optics," Opt. Express 21, 31263-31273 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci.146, 446–451 (1908).
  2. M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical sensing and visualization using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE99(4), 556–575 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Ji, C. G. Luo, H. Deng, D. H. Li, and Q. H. Wang, “Tilted elemental image array generation method for moiré-reduced computer generated integral imaging display,” Opt. Express21(17), 19816–19824 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martínez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt.52(4), 546–560 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express19(5), 4129–4139 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(4), 228–234 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tay, P. A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional display,” Nature451(7179), 694–698 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. E. Ives, “Optical properties of a Lippman lenticulated sheet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21(3), 171–176 (1931). [CrossRef]
  9. C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A58(1), 71–74 (1968). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).
  11. L. Yang, M. McCormick, and N. Davies, “Discussion of the optics of a new 3-D imaging system,” Appl. Opt.27(21), 4529–4534 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, “Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 490–501 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Arai, F. Okano, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, “Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images,” Appl. Opt.37(11), 2034–2045 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, “Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A15(8), 2059–2065 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Mishina, “3D television system based on integral photography,” in Picture Coding Symposium (PCS) (Nagoya, Japan, 2010), p. 20. [CrossRef]
  16. J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral three-dimensional television using a 33-megapixel imaging system,” J. Disp. Technol.6(10), 422–430 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Aloni, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional photon counting integral imaging reconstruction using penalized maximum likelihood expectation maximization,” Opt. Express19(20), 19681–19687 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in turbid water using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.6(10), 544–547 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. B. Javidi, I. Moon, and S. Yeom, “Three-dimensional identification of biological microorganism using integral imaging,” Opt. Express14(25), 12096–12108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Arai, H. Hoshino, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Effects of focusing on the resolution characteristics of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20(6), 996–1004 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Ö. Yöntem and L. Onural, “Integral imaging using phase-only LCoS spatial light modulators as Fresnel lenslet arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28(11), 2359–2375 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. Okano, J. Arai, H. Hoshino, and I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng.38(6), 1072–1077 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. J. H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt.48(34), H77–H94 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE97(6), 1067–1077 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. R. Yang, X. Huang, S. Li, and C. Jaynes, “Toward the light field display: Autostereoscopic rendering via a cluster of projectors,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.14(1), 84–96 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Javidi, S. H. Hong, and O. Matoba, “Multidimensional optical sensor and imaging system,” Appl. Opt.45(13), 2986–2994 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed.8(2), 114–121 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Deng, Q. H. Wang, Y. H. Tao, D. H. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Realization of undistorted and orthoscopic integral imaging without black zone in real and virtual fields,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 255–258 (2011). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Y. Son, W. H. Son, S. K. Kim, K. H. Lee, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging for creating real-world-like environments,” Proc. IEEE101(1), 190–205 (2013). [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.17(9), 1683–1684 (1978). [CrossRef]
  31. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 591–607 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. C. G. Luo, C. C. Ji, F. N. Wang, Y. Z. Wang, and Q. H. Wang, “Crosstalk free integral imaging display with wide viewing angle using periodic black mask,” J. Disp. Technol.8(11), 634–638 (2012). [CrossRef]
  33. R. Martínez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, and M. Martinez-Corral, “Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system,” Opt. Express15(24), 16255–16260 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, P. Y. Hsieh, T. H. Jen, Y. C. Chang, Y. R. Su, M. Cho, X. Xiao, and B. Javidi, “Enlarged viewing angle of integral imaging system by liquid crystal prism,” Proc. SID Symp. Dig.44(1), 231–234 (2013).
  35. H. Navarro, J. C. Barreiro, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “High-resolution far-field integral-imaging camera by double snapshot,” Opt. Express20(2), 890–895 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Extended depth-of-field 3-D display and visualization by combination of amplitude-modulated microlenses and deconvolution tools,” J. Disp. Technol.1(2), 321–327 (2005). [CrossRef]
  37. S. W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(2), L71–L74 (2005). [CrossRef]
  38. C. G. Luo, Q. H. Wang, H. Deng, X. X. Gong, L. Li, and F. N. Wang, “Depth calculation method of integral imaging based on Gaussian beam distribution model,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 112–116 (2012). [CrossRef]
  39. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts and Company, 2005), Chap. 5.
  40. F. Okano, J. Arai, and M. Kawakita, “Wave optical analysis of integral method for three-dimensional images,” Opt. Lett.32(4), 364–366 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed., S. Grall, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Part 1.
  42. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optic, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. VIII.
  43. J. S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Large depth-of-focus time-multiplexed three-dimensional integral imaging by use of lenslets with nonuniform focal lengths and aperture sizes,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1924–1926 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. J. E. Greivenkamp, “Airy Disk,” in Field Guide to Geometrical Optics (SPIE, 2004).
  45. B. Javidi, F. Okano, and J. Y. Son, Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display (Springer, 2009).
  46. G. Park, J. H. Jung, K. Hong, Y. Kim, Y. H. Kim, S. W. Min, and B. Lee, “Multi-viewer tracking integral imaging system and its viewing zone analysis,” Opt. Express17(20), 17895–17908 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. ITU-R Rec. BT.1438, Subjective assessment of stereoscopic television pictures (2000).
  48. M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Optimization of 3D integral imaging system parameters,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 357–360 (2012). [CrossRef]
  49. D. Shin, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Generalization of three-dimensional N-ocular imaging systems under fixed resource constraints,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 19–21 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited