OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 25 — Dec. 16, 2013
  • pp: 31548–31559

Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector

C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, V. J. Wittwer, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 25, pp. 31548-31559 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1664 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ∼0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
(140.7270) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: October 23, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 2, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 2, 2013
Published: December 13, 2013

C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, V. J. Wittwer, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector," Opt. Express 21, 31548-31559 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424, 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429, 67–120 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications (CRC Press, 2003).
  4. T. Südmeyer, D. J. H. C. Maas, and U. Keller, “Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Lasers,” in Semiconductor Disk Lasers, O.G. Okhotnikov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2010), pp. 213–261. [CrossRef]
  5. R. Aviles-Espinosa, G. Filippidis, C. Hamilton, G. Malcolm, K. J. Weingarten, T. Südmeyer, Y. Barbarin, U. Keller, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Compact ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: targeting GFP based nonlinear applications in living organisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express2, 739–747 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21, 1599–1605 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, and L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.27, 1332–1346 (1991). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.42, 838–847 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal3, 658–664 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express18, 27582–27588 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett.48, 516–517 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48, 588–589 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18, 29–41 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.
  15. M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19, 8108–8116 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4, 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science320, 1308 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 196405 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm.4, 1987 (2013).
  20. A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: Collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B88, 035430 (2013). [CrossRef]
  21. F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today15, 564–589 (2012). [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E44, 1082–1091 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21, 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano4, 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express5, 032701 (2012). [CrossRef]
  26. A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 013113 (2013). [CrossRef]
  27. R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express21, 7943–7950 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express20, 4136–4148 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B108, 129–135 (2012). [CrossRef]
  30. F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science320, 206–209 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81, 27–32 (2005). [CrossRef]
  32. B. E. A. Saleh and M. K. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2 ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007).
  33. K. F. Renk, Basics of Laser Physics (Springer, 2012). [CrossRef]
  34. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5, 574–578 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 187401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett.11, 3190–3196 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol.8, 235–246 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Phys. Rev. B61, 14095–14107 (2000). [CrossRef]
  39. A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3, 210–215 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B81, 155413 (2010). [CrossRef]
  41. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express16, 7571–7579 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett.7, 2711–2717 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. W.-T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B82, 081408 (2010). [CrossRef]
  44. C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast Photoluminescence from Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 127404 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. M. Lazzeri, S. Piscanec, F. Mauri, A. C. Ferrari, and J. Robertson, “Electron transport and hot phonons in carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95236802 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. E. Malic, T. Winzer, and A. Knorr, “Efficient orientational carrier relaxation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 213110 (2012). [CrossRef]
  47. D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B79, 927–932 (2004). [CrossRef]
  48. R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.38, 1268–1275 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited