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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 25 — Dec. 16, 2013
  • pp: 31548–31559

Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector

C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, V. J. Wittwer, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 25, pp. 31548-31559 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.031548


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Abstract

We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ∼0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
(140.7270) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 23, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 2, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 2, 2013
Published: December 13, 2013

Citation
C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, V. J. Wittwer, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector," Opt. Express 21, 31548-31559 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-25-31548


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