OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 3932–3940

High nonlinear figure-of-merit amorphous silicon waveguides

J. Matres, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Gautier, J-M Fédéli, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 3932-3940 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1051 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The nonlinear response of amorphous silicon waveguides is reported and compared to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) samples. The real part of the nonlinear coefficient γ is measured by four-wave-mixing and the imaginary part of γ is characterized by measuring the nonlinear loss at different peak powers. The combination of both results yields a two-photon-absorption figure of merit of 4.9, which is more than 7 times higher than for the SOI samples. Time-resolved measurements and simulations confirm the measured nonlinear coefficient γ and show the absence of slow free-carrier effects versus ns free-carrier lifetimes in the SOI samples.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: July 5, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 5, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 9, 2012
Published: February 11, 2013

J. Matres, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Gautier, J-M Fédéli, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, "High nonlinear figure-of-merit amorphous silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 21, 3932-3940 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431, 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. B. Kuyken, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “On-chip parametric amplification with 26.5 dB gain at telecommunication wavelengths using CMOS-compatible hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 552–554 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.14, 1140–1142 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides.” Opt. Express18, 8998–9005 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. K. OLeary, S. R. Johnson, and P. K. Lim, “The relationship between the distribution of electronic states and the optical absorption spectrum of an amorphous semiconductor: An empirical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys.82, 3334 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express19, B146–B153 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Vallaitis, S. Bogatscher, L. Alloatti, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M. L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries,” Opt. Express17, 17357–17368 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Kung, C. Chang, J. Dung, and S. Chi, “Four-wave mixing between pump and signal in a distributed Raman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol.21, 1164–1170 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Wu and W. I. Way, “Fiber Nonlinearity Limitations in Ultra-Dense WDM Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.22, 1483–1498 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 825–831 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Vallaitis, C. Koos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and J. Leuthold, “Slow and fast dynamics of gain and phase in a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express16, 170–178 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).
  14. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Matres, C. Lacava, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. M. Fédéli, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “Low TPA and free-carrier effects in silicon nanocrystal-based horizontal slot waveguides,” Opt. Express20, 23838–23845 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express15, 5976–5990 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37, 2295–2297 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited