OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 4958–4969

Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer

Zi-Hui Zhang, Swee Tiam Tan, Wei Liu, Zhengang Ju, Ke Zheng, Zabu Kyaw, Yun Ji, Namig Hasanov, Xiao Wei Sun, and Hilmi Volkan Demir  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 4958-4969 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.004958


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1205 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

This work reports both experimental and theoretical studies on the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with optical output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) levels substantially enhanced by incorporating p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN (PNPNP-GaN) current spreading layers in p-GaN. Each thin n-GaN layer sandwiched in the PNPNP-GaN structure is completely depleted due to the built-in electric field in the PNPNP-GaN junctions, and the ionized donors in these n-GaN layers serve as the hole spreaders. As a result, the electrical performance of the proposed device is improved and the optical output power and EQE are enhanced.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: October 12, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 7, 2013
Published: February 21, 2013

Citation
Zi-Hui Zhang, Swee Tiam Tan, Wei Liu, Zhengang Ju, Ke Zheng, Zabu Kyaw, Yun Ji, Namig Hasanov, Xiao Wei Sun, and Hilmi Volkan Demir, "Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer," Opt. Express 21, 4958-4969 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-4958


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012). [CrossRef]
  2. M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1028–1040 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–243 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. Denbaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.27(2), 024001–024014 (2012). [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Browne, E. C. Young, J. R. Lang, C. A. Hurni, and J. S. Speck, “Indium and impurity incorporation in InGaN films on polar, nonpolar, and semipolar GaN orientations grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A30(4), 041513–041520 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regime,” IET Optoelectron.3(6), 283–295 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131114 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, A. Dempewolf, M. Müller, F. Bertram, and J. Christen, “An improved carrier rate model to evaluate internal quantum efficiency and analyze efficiency droop origin of InGaN based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.112(2), 023107 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101102 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Tansu and L. J. Mawst, “Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.97(5), 054502 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. H. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Effects of current spreading on the performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(6), 1065–1069 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. L. Chou, G. H. Chen, Y. H. Lin, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced characteristics of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by using selective activation to modulate the lateral current spreading length,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 261105 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. T. W. Kuo, S. X. Lin, P. K. Hung, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Formation of selective high barrier region by inductively coupled plasma treatment on GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(11), 116504 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Y. Ryu and J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express19(4), 2886–2894 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7-8), 2133–2135 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  23. C. F. Tsai, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Improvement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by natural-cluster silicon dioxide nanoparticles as the current-blocking layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 996–998 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, Y. H. Song, H. K. Lee, J. W. Choi, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of wall-plug efficiency in vertical InGaN/GaN LEDs by improved current spreading,” Opt. Express20(S2Suppl 2), A287–A292 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. H. Liu, P. R. Chen, G. Y. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN LEDs with an n-type AlGaN/GaN/InGaN current spreading layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(10), 1409–1411 (2011). [CrossRef]
  26. S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265–3267 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. A. H. Reading, J. J. Richardson, C. C. Pan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency white LEDs with single-crystal ZnO current spreading layers deposited by aqueous solution epitaxy,” Opt. Express20(1S1), A13–A19 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, and A. N. Tykhonov, “Research on electrical efficiency degradation influenced by current crowding in vertical blue InGaN-on-SiC light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(13), 1124–1126 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. C.-K. Li and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the current spreading effect and light extraction enhancement of vertical GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.59(2), 400–407 (2012). [CrossRef]
  30. Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012). [CrossRef]
  31. Z. -H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Display Technol. PP(99), 1–8 (2012).
  32. M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009). [CrossRef]
  33. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010). [CrossRef]
  34. V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1204–1206 (2002). [CrossRef]
  35. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003). [CrossRef]
  36. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1981).
  37. K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, T. Hashizume, T. Fukui, and H. Hasegawa, “Minority carrier diffusion length in GaN: dislocation density and doping concentration dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(5), 052105 (2005). [CrossRef]
  38. B. J. Baliga, Fundamentals of Power Semiconductor Devices (Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, 2008).
  39. M. K. Kwon, I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, J. O. Kim, B. Kim, and S. J. Park, “Gradient doping of Mg in p-type GaN for high efficiency InGaN-GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1880–1882 (2007). [CrossRef]
  40. D. K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998).
  41. Y. J. Liu, C. C. Huang, T. Y. Chen, C. S. Hsu, J. K. Liou, and W. C. Liu, “Improved performance of an InGaN-based light-emitting diode with a p-GaN/n-GaN barrier junction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(6), 755–761 (2011). [CrossRef]
  42. V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, “Effect of current crowding on the ideality factor in MQW InGaN/GaN LEDs on sapphire substrates,” Proc. SPIE 7617, 76171K −76171K–9 (2010).
  43. Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.107(1), 013103 (2010). [CrossRef]
  44. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited