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## Spectral engineering by Gaussian phase-matching for quantum photonicsP. Ben Dixon, Jeffrey H. Shapiro, and Franco N. C. Wong »View Author Affiliations
P. Ben Dixon,
Jeffrey H. Shapiro,
and Franco N. C. Wong
Corresponding author: bendixon@mit.edu |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 5879-5890 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.005879

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### Abstract

We demonstrate Gaussian-shaped phase matching of a periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal by imposing a custom duty-cycle pattern on its grating structure while keeping the grating period fixed. The PPKTP’s phase-matching characteristics are verified through optical difference-frequency generation measurements, showing good agreement with expected values based on our design parameters. Our theoretical analysis predicts that under extended phase-matching conditions the custom-poled PPKTP crystal is capable of generating heralded single photons with a spectral purity of 97%, and can reach as high as 99.5% with gentle spectral filtering, something that is highly desirable for photonic quantum information processing applications.

© 2013 OSA

**OCIS Codes**

(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

(270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

**ToC Category:**

Quantum Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: December 21, 2012

Revised Manuscript: February 21, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: February 21, 2013

Published: March 1, 2013

**Citation**

P. Ben Dixon, Jeffrey H. Shapiro, and Franco N. C. Wong, "Spectral engineering by Gaussian phase-matching for quantum photonics," Opt. Express **21**, 5879-5890 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-5-5879

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**Arie, A.**

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**Byer, R. L.**

**Calkins, B.**

**Carrasco, S.**

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**Chou, M. H.**

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**Cohen, O.**

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**Dowling, J. P.**

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**Eberly, J. H.**

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**Eckstein, A.**

**Erdmann, R.**

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**Fan, T. Y.**

**Fan, Y. X.**

**Fang, W.**

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**Feigelson, R. S.**

**Fejer, M.**

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**Fejer, M. M.**

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**Fiorentino, M.**

- O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-Photon Coincident-Frequency Entanglement via Extended Phase Matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 083601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Firstenberg, O.**

- T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q.-Y. Liang, S. Hoffenberth, A. V. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. D. Lukin, and V. Vuletić, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature488, 57–60 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Fradkin, K.**

- K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, and G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74, 914–916 (1999). [CrossRef]

**Galvanauskas, A.**

**Gerrits, T.**

**Gerry, C.**

- C. Gerry and P. Knight, Introductory Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2004). [CrossRef]

**Giovannetti, V.**

- V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: Beating the standard quantum limit,” Science306, 1330–1336 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- V. Giovannetti, L. Maccone, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Extended phase-matching conditions for improved entanglement generation,” Phys. Rev. A66, 043813 (2002). [CrossRef]
- V. Giovannetti, L. Maccone, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, “Generating entangled two-photon states with coincident frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 183602 (2002).

**Gisin, N.**

- M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys.3, 692–695 (2007). [CrossRef]

**Glancy, S.**

**Gorshkov, A. V.**

- T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q.-Y. Liang, S. Hoffenberth, A. V. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. D. Lukin, and V. Vuletić, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature488, 57–60 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Grice, W.**

**Grice, W. P.**

- W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A. Walmsley, “Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states,” Phys. Rev. A64, 063815 (2001). [CrossRef]

**Hadfield, R. H.**

**Halder, M.**

**Harter, D.**

**Herrmann, H.**

- E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, C. I. Osorio, H. Herrmann, and R. T. Thew, “Engineering integrated pure narrow-band photon sources,” New J. Phys.14, 033008 (2012). [CrossRef]

**Hoffenberth, S.**

**Hong, C. K.**

- C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett.59, 2044–2046 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Theory of parametric frequency down conversion of light,” Phys. Rev. A31, 2409–2418 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Howell, J. C.**

- I. Ali Khan and J. C. Howell, “Experimental demonstration of high two-photon time-energy entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A73, 031801 (2006). [CrossRef]

**Hu, B. Q.**

**Huang, C. E.**

**Huang, Y.-P.**

- Y.-P. Huang, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Heralding single photons without spectral factorability,” Phys. Rev. A82, 043826 (2010). [CrossRef]

**Hum, D. S.**

**Jundt, D.**

**Jundt, D. H.**

**Kaltenbaek, R.**

- R. Kaltenbaek, R. Prevedel, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity entanglement swapping with fully independent sources,” Phys. Rev. A79, 040302 (2009). [CrossRef]

**Kärtner, F. X.**

**Klapwijk, T.**

**Knight, P.**

- C. Gerry and P. Knight, Introductory Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2004). [CrossRef]

**Knill, E.**

**Kok, P.**

- P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, “Creation of large-photon-number path entanglement conditioned on photodetection,” Phys. Rev. A65, 052104 (2002). [CrossRef]

**König, F.**

- F. König and F. N. C. Wong, “Extended phase matching of second-harmonic generation in periodically poled KTiOPO4 with zero group-velocity mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 1644–1646 (2004). [CrossRef]

**Kumar, P.**

- J. Chen, K. F. Lee, C. Liang, and P. Kumar, “Fiber-based telecom-band degenerate-frequency source of entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett.31, 2798–2800 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Kurimura, S.**

- O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, S. Kurimura, and S. Tovstonog, “Joint temporal density measurements for two-photon state characterization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 153602 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, S. Kurimura, and S. Tovstonog, “Time-resolved single-photon detection by femtosecond upconversion,” Opt. Lett.33, 2257–2259 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Kuzucu, O.**

- O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, S. Kurimura, and S. Tovstonog, “Time-resolved single-photon detection by femtosecond upconversion,” Opt. Lett.33, 2257–2259 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, S. Kurimura, and S. Tovstonog, “Joint temporal density measurements for two-photon state characterization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 153602 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Kwiat, P. G.**

- R. Rangarajan, L. E. Vicent, A. B. U’Ren, and P. G. Kwiat, “Engineering an ideal indistinguishable photon-pair source for optical quantum information processing,” J. Mod. Opt.58, 318–327 (2011). [CrossRef]

**Law, C. K.**

- C. K. Law and J. H. Eberly, “Analysis and interpretation of high transverse entanglement in optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 127903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. K. Law, I. A. Walmsley, and J. H. Eberly, “Continuous frequency entanglement: Effective finite Hilbert space and entropy control,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5304–5307 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Lawall, J.**

- A. Muller, W. Fang, J. Lawall, and G. S. Solomon, “Creating polarization-entangled photon pairs from a semiconductor quantum dot using the optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 217402 (2009). [CrossRef]

**Lee, H.**

**Lee, K. F.**

**Liang, C.**

**Liang, Q.-Y.**

**Lita, A.**

**Lloyd, S.**

- V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: Beating the standard quantum limit,” Science306, 1330–1336 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Lukin, M. D.**

**Lundeen, J. S.**

- O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 123603 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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