OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Mar. 25, 2013
  • pp: 6955–6966

Demonstration of focus-tunable diffractive Moiré-lenses

Stefan Bernet, Walter Harm, and Monika Ritsch-Marte  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 6955-6966 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2459 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In an earlier publication [Appl. Opt. 47, 3722 (2008)] we suggested an adaptive optical lens, which consists of two cascaded diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Due to the Moiré-effect the combined optical element acts as a Fresnel zone lens with a refractive power that can be continuously adjusted by a mutual rotation of the two stacked DOEs. Here we present an experimental realization of this concept. Four designs of these Moiré-DOEs (MDOEs) were fabricated in thin (0.7 mm) glass slides by lithography and subsequent etching. Each element was realized as a 16 phase level DOE designed for 633 nm illumination. Our experimental investigation shows that the Moiré-lenses have a broad adjustable refractive power range with a high efficiency, which allows one to use them for flexible beam steering and for imaging applications.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(090.1970) Holography : Diffractive optics
(120.3620) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Lens system design

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: January 8, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 1, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 1, 2013
Published: March 13, 2013

Stefan Bernet, Walter Harm, and Monika Ritsch-Marte, "Demonstration of focus-tunable diffractive Moiré-lenses," Opt. Express 21, 6955-6966 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. L. Guoqiang, “Adaptive lens,” Progress in Opt.55, 199–283 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ren, S. Xu, Y.-J. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive-focus lenses,” Opt. Photon. News43–47Oct.2008.
  3. G. Zhou, H. M. Leung, H. Yu, A. S. Kumar, and F. S. Chau, “Liquid tunable diffractive-refractive hybrid lens,” Opt. Lett34, 2793–2795 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Nose and S. Sato, “A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field,” Liq. Cryst.5, 1425–1433 (1989). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Xu, Y.-J. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Dielectric liquid microlens with well-shaped electrode,” Opt. Express17, 10499 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Ren, D. Fox, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express15, 11328–11335 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett.35, 336–338 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. J. Valle, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Focal modulation using rotating phase filters,” Opt. Express18, 7820–7826 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Bernet and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Adjustable refractive power from diffractive Moiré elements,” Appl. Opt.47, 3722–3730 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Bará, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, and V. Moreno, “Determination of basic grids for subtractive Moiré patterns,” Appl. Opt.30, 1258–1262 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, A. Mira, R. Henao, and S. Bará, “Equilateral hyperbolic moiré zone plates with variable focus obtained by rotations,” Opt. Express13, 918–925 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J.M. Burch and D.C. Williams, “Varifocal Moiré zone plates for straightness measurement,” Appl. Opt.16, 2445–2450 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. W. Lohmann, “A new class of varifocal lenses,” Appl. Opt.9, 1669–1671 (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Kolodziejczyk and Z. Jaroszewicz, “Diffractive elements of variable optical power and high diffraction efficiency,” Appl. Opt.32, 4317–4322 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. M. Barton, S. N. Dixit, L. J. Summers, C. A. Thompson, K. Avicola, and J. Wilhelmsen, “Diffractive Alvarez lens,” Opt. Lett.25, 1–3 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Barbero, “The Alvarez and Lohmann refractive lenses revisited,” Opt. Express17, 9376–9390 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Barbero and J. Rubinstein, “Adjustable-focus lenses based on the Alvarez principle,” J. Opt.13, 125705 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Stone and N. George, “Hybrid diffractive-refractive lenses and achromats,” Appl. Opt.27, 2960–2971 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Brunner, R. Steiner, H. J. Dobschal, D. Martin, M. Burkhardt, and M. Helgert, “New solution to realize complex optical systems by a combination of diffractive and refractive optical components,” Proc. SPIE5183, 47–55 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. G. I. Greisukh, E. G. Ezhov, A. V. Kalashnikov, and S. A. Stepanov, “Diffractive–refractive correction units for plastic compact zoom lenses,” Appl. Opt.51, 4597–4604 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Kleemann, M. Seeßelberg, and J. Ruoff, “Design concepts for broadband high-efficiency DOEs,” JEOS - Rapid Pub.3, 08015 (2008). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics (Wiley, 2000).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited