OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Mar. 25, 2013
  • pp: 7373–7383

Simulation of modulation transfer function using a rendering method

Shuma Horiuchi, Shuhei Yoshida, and Manabu Yamamoto  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 7373-7383 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1202 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We propose a novel simulation method based on rendering to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of optical imaging systems. The new simulation method corresponds to an experimental measurement of the MTF using imaging resolution test charts, and therefore allows an analysis of the resolving power of shift-variant optical systems that are difficult to evaluate with conventional methods based on the point spread function (PSF). Furthermore, the effects of stray light, such as from reflection or scattering, on the imaging performance can be analyzed. In contrast to methods based on illumination optics using Monte Carlo methods, the proposed method calculates the intensities on an image surface with rendering techniques used in three-dimensional computer graphics (3D CG), which results in calculations that are faster and have a higher precision. The proposed method is highly effective in analyzing the MTF of optical imaging systems through simulations.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
(330.1715) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, rendering and metamerism

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: November 23, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 7, 2013
Published: March 18, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Shuma Horiuchi, Shuhei Yoshida, and Manabu Yamamoto, "Simulation of modulation transfer function using a rendering method," Opt. Express 21, 7373-7383 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Yoshida, S. Horiuchi, Z. Ushiyama, and M. Yamamoto, “A numerical analysis method for evaluating rod lenses using the Monte Carlo method,” Opt. Express18, 27016–27027 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2005).
  3. J. T. Kajiya, “The rendering equation,” SIGGRAPH 1986, 143–150 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Nishita, I. Okamura, and E. Nakamae, “Shading models for point and linear sources,” ACM Trans. Graph.4, 124–146 (1985). [CrossRef]
  5. H. W. Jensen, Realistic image synthesis using photon mapping (AK Peters, Ltd., 2001).
  6. T. Whitted, “An improved illumination model for shaded display,” Communications of the ACM23, 343–349 (1980). [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Coltman, “The Specification of Imaging Properties by Response to a Sine Wave Input,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.44, 468–469 (1954). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Pharr and G. Humphreys, Physically based rendering: From theory to implementation (Morgan Kaufmann, 2010).
  9. C. Lemieux, Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Sampling (Springer, 2009).
  10. P. Shirley, “Discrepancy as a quality measure for sample distributions,” Proceedings of Eurographics91, 183–193 (1991).
  11. C. Kolb, D. Mitchell, and P. Hanrahan, “A realistic camera model for computer graphics,” Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 317–324 (1995).
  12. P. Shirley and R. K. Morley, Realistic ray tracing (AK Peters, Ltd., 2003).
  13. J. S. Warren, Modern Lens Design (Washington: SPIE Press, 2005).
  14. S. Horiuchi, S. Yoshida, Z. Ushiyama, and M. Yamamoto, “Performance evaluation of GRIN lenses by ray tracing method,” Opt. Quant. Electron.42, 81–88 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited