OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 7 — Apr. 8, 2013
  • pp: 7916–7925

Switchable focus using a polymeric lenticular microlens array and a polarization rotator

Hongwen Ren, Su Xu, Yifan Liu, and Shin-Tson Wu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 7916-7925 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3215 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate a flat polymeric lenticular microlens array using a mixture of rod-like diacrylate monomer and positive dielectric anisotropy nematic liquid crystal (LC). To create gradient refractive index profile in one microlens, we generate fringing fields from a planar top electrode and two striped bottom electrodes. After UV stabilization, the film is optically anisotropic and can stand alone. We then laminate this film on a 90° twisted-nematic LC cell, which works as a dynamic polarization rotator. The static polymeric lenticular lens exhibits focusing effect only to the extraordinary ray, but no optical effect to the ordinary ray. Such an integrated lens system offers several advantages, such as low voltage, fast response time, and temperature insensitivity, and can be used for switchable 2D/3D displays.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(120.2040) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Displays
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(220.2560) Optical design and fabrication : Propagating methods
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: January 30, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 26, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 27, 2013
Published: March 25, 2013

Hongwen Ren, Su Xu, Yifan Liu, and Shin-Tson Wu, "Switchable focus using a polymeric lenticular microlens array and a polarization rotator," Opt. Express 21, 7916-7925 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle 3D/2D convertible display system using two display devices and a lens array,” Opt. Express13(21), 8424–8432 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Dekker, S. T. de Zwart, O. H. Willemsen, M. G. H. Hiddink, and W. L. IJzerman, “2D/3D switchable displays,” Proc. SPIE6135, 61350K, 61350K-11 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Flack, J. Harrold, and J. Woodgate, “A prototype 3D mobile phone equipped with a next generation autostereocopic display,” Proc. SPIE6490, 64900M (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2D/3D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. SID16(8), 847–855 (2008).
  5. A. Takagi, T. Saishu, M. Kashiwagi, K. Taira, and Y. Hirayama, “Autostereoscopic partial 2-D/3-D switchable display using liquid-crystal gradient index lens,” SID Symp. Dig. 41, 436–439 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, and D. Ezra, “Flat panel autostereoscopic displays-characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE3957, 153–164 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, and H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(4), 215–219 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. R.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Tsai, K. Lee, C.-L. Wu, L.-C. D. Lin, K.-C. Huang, W.-L. Hsu, C.-S. Wu, C.-F. Lu, J.-C. Yang, and Y.-C. Chen, “Challenge of 3D LCD displays,” Proc. SPIE7329, 732903, 732903-8 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: A review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast57(2), 362–371 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, “Variable focal length microlenses,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 157–170 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-H. Fan, H. Ren, X. Liang, H. Wang, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal microlens arrays with switchable positive and negative focal lengths,” J. Disp. Technol.1(1), 151–156 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, and Q. Wang, “A focus-switchable lens made of polymer–liquid crystal composite,” J. Cryst. Growth288(1), 192–194 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, and C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(9), 642–646 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Liu, H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Chen, L. Rao, T. Ishinabe, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive focus integral image system design based on fast-response liquid crystal microlens,” J. Disp. Technol.7(12), 674–678 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. J.-H. Na, S.-C. Park, S.-U. Kim, Y. Choi, and S.-D. Lee, “Physical mechanism for flat-to-lenticular lens conversion in homogeneous liquid crystal cell with periodically undulated electrode,” Opt. Express20(2), 864–869 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Lueder, 3D Displays (Wiley, 2012).
  17. Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Baek, Y. Kim, J.-U. Heo, Y.-K. Moon, J. S. Gwag, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Polarizer-free liquid crystal display with electrically switchable microlens array,” Opt. Express21(1), 129–134 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.18(4), 127–128 (1971). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S. T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express17(20), 17590–17595 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Flat polymeric microlens array,” Opt. Commun.261(2), 296–299 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. N. S. Holliman, “3D display systems,” in Handbook of optoelectronics, J.P. Dakin and R. G. W. Brown (Taylor & Francis, 2006).
  22. A. Naumov, G. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express4(9), 344–352 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited