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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 7 — Apr. 8, 2013
  • pp: 8051–8061

Damage investigation on tungsten and diamond diffractive optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser

Fredrik Uhlén, Daniel Nilsson, Anders Holmberg, Hans M. Hertz, Christian G. Schroer, Frank Seiboth, Jens Patommel, Vivienne Meier, Robert Hoppe, Andreas Schropp, Hae Ja Lee, Bob Nagler, Eric Galtier, Jacek Krzywinski, Harald Sinn, and Ulrich Vogt  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 8051-8061 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.008051


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Abstract

Focusing hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation with extremely high fluence sets stringent demands on the x-ray optics. Any material placed in an intense x-ray beam is at risk of being damaged. Therefore, it is crucial to find the damage thresholds for focusing optics. In this paper we report experimental results of exposing tungsten and diamond diffractive optics to a prefocused 8.2 keV free-electron laser beam in order to find damage threshold fluence levels. Tungsten nanostructures were damaged at fluence levels above 500 mJ/cm2. The damage was of mechanical character, caused by thermal stress variations. Diamond nanostructures were affected at a fluence of 59 000 mJ/cm2. For fluence levels above this, a significant graphitization process was initiated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and µ-Raman analysis were used to analyze exposed nanostructures.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.2600) Lasers and laser optics : Free-electron lasers (FELs)
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics

ToC Category:
X-ray Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 15, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 1, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 12, 2013
Published: March 26, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Fredrik Uhlén, Daniel Nilsson, Anders Holmberg, Hans M. Hertz, Christian G. Schroer, Frank Seiboth, Jens Patommel, Vivienne Meier, Robert Hoppe, Andreas Schropp, Hae Ja Lee, Bob Nagler, Eric Galtier, Jacek Krzywinski, Harald Sinn, and Ulrich Vogt, "Damage investigation on tungsten and diamond diffractive optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser," Opt. Express 21, 8051-8061 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-7-8051


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