OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 7 — Apr. 8, 2013
  • pp: 8450–8459

A nanoscale conical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sub-wavelength structure with a high aspect ratio realized by a stamping method

Dae-Seon Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, and Jae-Hyung Jang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 8450-8459 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1331 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A high aspect ratio conical sub-wavelength structure (SWS) was designed by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method and was realized on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film using a stamping technique. The silicon template containing a hexagonal array of conical holes with a period of 350 nm and an aspect ratio of 2.8 was fabricated by electron-beam (e-beam) lithography followed by a two-step etching process. The SWS with a high aspect ratio was easily transferred from the fabricated silicon template to PMMA film using the stamping method. The replicated PMMA SWS has an array of cones with nanoscale tips and an aspect ratio higher than 2.8. The average reflectance and transmittance of the PMMA film with the conical SWS in the wavelength ranging from 500 and 1500 nm was improved from 7.1 and 91.1% to 4.3 and 94.2%, respectively, as compared to flat PMMA film.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: February 7, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 10, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 15, 2013
Published: March 29, 2013

Dae-Seon Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, and Jae-Hyung Jang, "A nanoscale conical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sub-wavelength structure with a high aspect ratio realized by a stamping method," Opt. Express 21, 8450-8459 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Nishioka, S. Horita, K. Ohdaira, and H. Matsumura, “Antireflection subwavelength structure of silicon surface formed by wet process using catalysis of single nano-sized gold particle,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(8), 919–922 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Y. Chiu, C. H. Chang, M. A. Tsai, F. Y. Chang, and P. C. Yu, “Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures,” Opt. Express18(S3Suppl 3), A308–A313 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, and E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(10), 2427–2433 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. O. Dial, C. C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Fabrication of high-density nanostructures by electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(6), 3887–3890 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. M. Song, S. Y. Bae, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Closely packed and aspect-ratio-controlled antireflection subwavelength gratings on GaAs using a lenslike shape transfer,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1702–1704 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(26), 263118 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B21(6), 2874–2877 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. N. Koo, U. Plachetka, M. Otto, J. Bolten, J. H. Jeong, E. S. Lee, and H. Kurz, “The fabrication of a flexible mold for high resolution soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology19(22), 225304 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. S. Kim, M. S. Park, and J. H. Jang, “Fabrication of a cone-shaped subwavelength structures by utilizing a confined convective self-assembly technique and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(2), 020602 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Kanamori and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection subwavelength gratings for polymethyl methacrylate fabricated with molding technique,” Opt. Rev.9(5), 183–185 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Nam, J. H. Kim, D. Y. Jung, J. B. Park, and H. S. Lee, “Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(16), 5134–5140 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Y. Chen and K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(3), 629–633 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. K. S. Han, H. Lee, D. Kim, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of anti-reflection structure on protective layer of solar cells by hot-embossing method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1214–1217 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology19(20), 205301 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Y. Tsai and C. J. Ting, “Optical characteristics of moth-eye structures on poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate sheets fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(6), 06FH19 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Li, S. Minoru, and H. Kazuhiro, “Micro-optical components based on silicon mold technology,” Opt. Lasers Eng.41(3), 545–552 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. J. H. Shin, K. S. Han, and H. Lee, “Anti-reflection and hydrophobic characteristics of M-PDMS based moth-eye nano-patterns on protection glass of photovoltaic systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(3), 339–344 (2011). [CrossRef]
  19. E. B. Grann, M. G. Moharam, and D. A. Pommet, “Artificial uniaxial and biaxial dielectrics with use of two-dimensional subwavelength binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A11(10), 2695–2703 (1994). [CrossRef]
  20. D. H. Raguin and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection structured surfaces for the infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt.32(7), 1154–1167 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filter, 3rd ed. (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001).
  22. Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Design of highly transparent glasses with broadband antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express18(12), 13063–13071 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited