OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 7 — Apr. 8, 2013
  • pp: 8535–8543

Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diode using metallic nanomesh electrodes and microlens array

Yu-Hsuan Ho, Kuan-Yu Chen, Kai-Yu Peng, Ming-Chih Tsai, Wei-Cheng Tian, and Pei-Kuen Wei  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 8535-8543 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2464 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A precisely controlled metallic nanomesh was fabricated by using nanosphere lithography to pattern the silver thin film to form hexagonal nanohole arrays with excellent uniformity, high conductivity and good transparency. An Alq3 based OLED, with the silver nanomesh electrode of high ðll factor of 70.2% demonstrated a considerable luminous efðciency of 4.8 cd/A, which is 60.9% higher than the referenced device with ITO anode. The periodical nanohole array not only increased the transparency but also helped extracting surface plasmonic wave in organic layers. By attaching the microlens array to further extract the trapped light in substrate, the extraction efficiency enhancement of device with nanomesh anode was 73.8% higher than 50.2% of the referenced device with ITO anode. And the overall current efficiency of device with nanomesh anode was 87.7% higher than traditional ITO based device.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: January 29, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 14, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 27, 2013
Published: April 1, 2013

Yu-Hsuan Ho, Kuan-Yu Chen, Kai-Yu Peng, Ming-Chih Tsai, Wei-Cheng Tian, and Pei-Kuen Wei, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diode using metallic nanomesh electrodes and microlens array," Opt. Express 21, 8535-8543 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater.18(1), 114–117 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Izaki and T. Omi, “Transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(17), 2439–2440 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. R. Hoffman, B. Norris, and J. Wager, “ZnO-based transparent thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(5), 733–735 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. X. Jiang, F. Wong, M. Fung, and S. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(9), 1875–1877 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Jain and R. Kumar, “Electrical and optical properties of tin oxide and antimony doped tin oxide films,” Opt. Mater.26(1), 27–31 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. F. Yang and S. Forrest, “Organic solar cells using transparent SnO2–F anodes,” Adv. Mater.18(15), 2018–2022 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. C. D. Williams, R. O. Robles, M. Zhang, S. Li, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, “Multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets as transparent electrodes in high brightness organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(18), 183506 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. H. Ho, K. Y. Chen, S. W. Liu, Y. T. Chang, D. W. Huang, and P. K. Wei, “Transparent and conductive metallic electrodes fabricated by using nanosphere lithography,” Org. Electron.12(6), 961–965 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Zhu, X. Zhu, R. Hoekstra, L. Li, F. Xiu, M. Xue, B. Zeng, and K. L. Wang, “Metallic nanomesh electrodes with controllable optical properties for organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(14), 143109 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 346–361 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater.15(14), 1214–1218 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013303 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(23), 4315–4317 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Sun and S. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Cong, T. Yu, Z. Ni, L. Liu, Z. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(16), 6529–6532 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. K. Y. Wu, S. Y. Yu, and Y. T. Tao, “Continuous modulation of electrode work function with mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect in charge injection,” Langmuir25(11), 6232–6238 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. H. Ho, Y. T. Chang, S. W. Liu, H. H. Lai, C. W. Chu, C. I. Wu, W. C. Tian, and P.-K. Wei, “Optimization of polymer light emitting devices using TiOx electron transport layers and prism sheets,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2667–2670 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited