OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 9 — May. 6, 2013
  • pp: 11086–11094

Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode

Ja-Ryong Koo, Seok Jae Lee, Ho Won Lee, Dong Hyung Lee, Hyung Jin Yang, Woo Young Kim, and Young Kwan Kim  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 11086-11094 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.011086


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1434 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We fabricated a flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diode (BEWOLED) with a structure of PET/Ni/Ag/Ni (3/6/3 nm)/ NPB (50 nm)/mCP (10 nm)/7% FIrpic:mCP (10 nm)/3% Ir(pq)2acac:TPBi (5 nm)/7% FIrpic:TPBi (5 nm)/TPBi (10 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/ Al (100 nm). To improve the performance of the BEWOLED, a multilayered metal stack anode of Ni/Ag/Ni treated with oxygen plasma for 60 sec was introduced into the OLED devices. The Ni/Ag/Ni anode effectively enhanced the probability of hole-electron recombination due to an efficient hole injection into and charge balance in an emitting layer. By comparing with a reference WOLED using ITO on glass, it is verified that the flexible BEWOLED showed a similar or better electroluminescence (EL) performance.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: January 24, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 22, 2013
Published: April 29, 2013

Citation
Ja-Ryong Koo, Seok Jae Lee, Ho Won Lee, Dong Hyung Lee, Hyung Jin Yang, Woo Young Kim, and Young Kwan Kim, "Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode," Opt. Express 21, 11086-11094 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-9-11086


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater.16(18), 1585–1595 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. T.-W. Lee, T. Noh, B.-K. Choi, M.-S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043301 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203507 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. J.-H. Jou, C.-P. Wang, M.-H. Wu, H.-W. Lin, H. C. Pan, and B.-H. Liu, “High-efficiency flexible white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(32), 6626–6629 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1137–1141 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Wangn, Y. Lou, S. Naka, and H. Okada, “High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer,” J. Lumin.130(7), 1198–1202 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. K. H. Choi, H. J. Nam, J. A. Jeong, S. W. Cho, H. K. Kim, J. W. Kang, D. G. Kim, and W. J. Cho, “Highly flexible and transparent InZnSnOx/Ag/InZnSnOx multilayer electrode for flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223302 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Sparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, G. P. Crawford, and R. R. Newton, “Strain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(11), 1425–1427 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3450–3452 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Metal oxides as a hole-injecting layer for an organic electroluminescent device,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.29(11), 2750–2753 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. H. You, Y. Dai, Z. Zhang, and D. Ma, “Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with metal oxide as anode buffer,” J. Appl. Phys.101(2), 026105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Cho, C. Yun, J. W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/Ag/WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron.10(6), 1163–1169 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. I. M. Chan, T. Y. Hsu, and F. C. Hong, “Enhanced hole injections in organic light-emitting devices by depositing nickel oxide on indium tin oxide anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(10), 1899–1901 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. T. L. Chen, D. S. Ghosh, D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, and V. Pruneri, “Highly stable Al-doped ZnO transparent conductors using an oxidized ultrathin metal capping layer at its percolation thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(9), 093302 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. K. X. Steirer, J. P. Chesin, N. E. Widjonarko, J. J. Berry, A. Miedaner, D. S. Ginley, and D. C. Olson, “Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics,” Org. Electron.11(8), 1414–1418 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. D. Krautz, S. Cheylan, D. S. Ghosh, and V. Pruneri, “Nickel as an alternative semitransparent anode to indium tin oxide for polymer LED applications,” Nanotechnology20(27), 275204 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Liu, M. Nishiura, Y. Wang, and Z. Hou, “π-conjugated aromatic enynes as a single-emitting component for white electroluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(17), 5592–5593 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. W. Hyung, D. H. Lee, H. W. Lee, Y. H. Kim, S. J. Lee, J. R. Koo, W. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Bottom-emission organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent anode electrode by O2 plasma,” Org. Electron.13(11), 2594–2599 (2012). [CrossRef]
  19. D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films371(1–2), 105–108 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. . K. Subramanyam, S. Uthanna, and B. Srinivasulu Naidu, “Preparation and characterization of CdO films deposited by dc magnetron reactive sputtering,” Mater. Lett.35(3–4), 214–220 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. H. J. Jang, C. J. Park, and H. S. Kwon, “Photoelectrochemical analysis on the passive film formed on Ni in pH 8.5 buffer solution,” Electrochim. Acta50(16–17), 3503–3508 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Sasi and K. G. Gopchandran, “Nanostructured mesoporous nickel oxide thin films,” Nanotechnology18(11), 115613 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Oswald and W. Brückner, “XPS depth profile analysis of non-stoichiometric NiO films,” Surf. Interface Anal.36(1), 17–22 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. M. C. Biesinger, B. P. Payne, L. W. M. Lau, A. Gerson, and R. S. C. Smart, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic chemical state quantification of mixed nickel metal, oxide and hydroxide systems,” Surf. Interface Anal.41(4), 324–332 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. H. K. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, Y. H. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. G. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. I. Park, J. W. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Deep, blue, efficient, moderate microcavity organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.11(1), 137–145 (2010). [CrossRef]
  26. K. Neyts, P. De Visschere, D. K. Fork, and G. B. Anderson, “Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(1), 114–119 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. Y. G. Ju, “Micro-cavity in organic light-emitting diode,” Organic Light Emitting Diode - Material, Process and Devices, S. H. Ko, ed. (InTech, 2011).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited