OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 1 — Jan. 13, 2014
  • pp: 1094–1104

Dynamic monitoring of optical clearing of skin using photoacoustic microscopy and ultrasonography

Xiaoquan Yang, Yanyan Liu, Dan Zhu, Rui Shi, and Qingming Luo  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 1094-1104 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2938 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Tissue optical clearing technique has shown great potential for enhancing the imaging depth and contrast of optical imaging modalities. However, the mechanism of optical clearing is still in controversy. In this manuscript, we combined photoacoustic microscopy with ultrasonography to monitor the dermic changes induced by optical clearing agents at different immersion time points. The measured parameters were correlated with the optical clearing process, and could be used to assess the optical clearing effect. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that photoacoustic microscopy and ultrasonography can potentially be used as a powerful tool in screening optical clearing agents and exploring the mechanism of optical clearing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.5120) Imaging systems : Photoacoustic imaging
(110.7170) Imaging systems : Ultrasound
(170.6930) Medical optics and biotechnology : Tissue

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: November 1, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 5, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 6, 2014
Published: January 10, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Xiaoquan Yang, Yanyan Liu, Dan Zhu, Rui Shi, and Qingming Luo, "Dynamic monitoring of optical clearing of skin using photoacoustic microscopy and ultrasonography," Opt. Express 22, 1094-1104 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2497–2518 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. M. Luo, V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photon Rev 7(5), 732–757 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Wang, R. Shi, D. Zhu, “Switchable skin window induced by optical clearing method for dermal blood flow imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 061209 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Samatham, K. G. Phillips, S. L. Jacques, “Assessment of optical clearing agents using reflectance-mode confocal scanning laser microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(3), 183–188 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Cicchi, D. Sampson, D. Massi, F. Pavone, “Contrast and depth enhancement in two-photon microscopy of human skin ex vivo by use of optical clearing agents,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2337–2344 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Y. Liu, X. Q. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, Q. M. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2(4), 401–417 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. G. Rylander, O. F. Stumpp, T. E. Milner, N. J. Kemp, J. M. Mendenhall, K. R. Diller, A. J. Welch, “Dehydration mechanism of optical clearing in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041117 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. T. Yu, X. Wen, V. V. Tuchin, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Quantitative analysis of dehydration in porcine skin for assessing mechanism of optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 095002 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Wen, Z. Z. Mao, Z. Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. T. Yeh, J. Hirshburg, “Molecular interactions of exogenous chemical agents with collagen--implications for tissue optical clearing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014003 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Szymańska, A. Nowicki, K. Mlosek, J. Litniewski, M. Lewandowski, W. Secomski, R. Tymkiewicz, “Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound - preliminary results,” Eur. J. Ultrasound 12(1), 9–16 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, “In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(4), 797–804 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. A. Menyaev, D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, M. A. Juratli, E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, V. P. Zharov, “Optical clearing in photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 3030–3041 (2013). [CrossRef]
  19. X. Q. Yang, X. Cai, K. Maslov, L. H. Wang, Q. M. Luo, “High-resolution photoacoustic microscope for rat brain imaging in vivo,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(6), 609–611 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. Z. W. Zhi, Z. Z. Han, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “Improve optical clearing of skin in vitro with propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 2(3), 269–278 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Wan, “Measurement of ultrasonic parameters of biomedical samples,” in Experiments of Biomedical Ultrasound, M. Wan, ed. (Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 2010).
  22. C. C. Harland, S. G. Kale, P. Jackson, P. S. Mortimer, J. C. Bamber, “Differentiation of common benign pigmented skin lesions from melanoma by high-resolution ultrasound,” Br. J. Dermatol. 143(2), 281–289 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Z. Mao, D. Zhu, Y. T. Hu, X. Wen, Z. Z. Han, “Influence of alcohols on the optical clearing effect of skin in vitro,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021104 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. A. Evans, M. B. Tavakoli, “Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in bone,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(10), 1387–1396 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. C. Harland, J. C. Bamber, B. A. Gusterson, P. S. Mortimer, “High frequency, high resolution B-scan ultrasound in the assessment of skin tumours,” Br. J. Dermatol. 128(5), 525–532 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Liu, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Guo, J. P. Wang, Z. F. Zhuang, S. H. Liu, “Discrimination of dimethyl sulphoxide diffusion coefficient in the process of optical clearing by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 020507 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. J. Zhang, “Fundamentals of ultrasonics,” in Ultrasonics Handbook, R. Feng, ed. (Nanjing University, Nanjing, 1999).
  28. J. Wang, Y. Zhang, T. H. Xu, Q. M. Luo, D. Zhu, “An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 469–473 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. L. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. Nogueira, V. V. Tuchin, “Optical measurements of rat muscle samples under treatment with ethylene glycol and glucose,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 6(2), 1350012 (2013). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited