OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 10 — May. 19, 2014
  • pp: 11498–11507

Pulsed Sagnac polarization-entangled photon source with a PPKTP crystal at telecom wavelength

Rui-Bo Jin, Ryosuke Shimizu, Kentaro Wakui, Mikio Fujiwara, Taro Yamashita, Shigehito Miki, Hirotaka Terai, Zhen Wang, and Masahide Sasaki  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 10, pp. 11498-11507 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1199 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate pulsed polarization-entangled photons generated from a periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal in a Sagnac interferometer configuration at telecom wavelength. Since the group-velocity-matching (GVM) condition is satisfied, the intrinsic spectral purity of the photons is much higher than in the previous scheme at around 800 nm wavelength. The combination of a Sagnac interferometer and the GVM-PPKTP crystal makes our entangled source compact, stable, highly entangled, spectrally pure and ultra-bright. The photons were detected by two superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) with detection efficiencies of 70% and 68% at dark counts of less than 1 kcps. We achieved fidelities of 0.981 ± 0.0002 for |ψ〉 and 0.980 ± 0.001 for |ψ+〉 respectively. This GVM-PPKTP-Sagnac scheme is directly applicable to quantum communication experiments at telecom wavelength, especially in free space.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
(270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

Original Manuscript: March 13, 2014
Revised Manuscript: April 18, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 18, 2014
Published: May 5, 2014

Rui-Bo Jin, Ryosuke Shimizu, Kentaro Wakui, Mikio Fujiwara, Taro Yamashita, Shigehito Miki, Hirotaka Terai, Zhen Wang, and Masahide Sasaki, "Pulsed Sagnac polarization-entangled photon source with a PPKTP crystal at telecom wavelength," Opt. Express 22, 11498-11507 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Poppe, A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, H. Böhm, T. Lorünser, O. Maurhardt, M. Peev, M. Suda, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, T. Jennewein, A. Zeilinger, “Practical quantum key distribution with polarization entangled photons,” Opt. Express 12, 3865–3871 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Gisin, S. Pironio, N. Sangouard, “Proposal for implementing device-independent quantum key distribution based on a heralded qubit amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135–174 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Edamatsu, “Entangled photons: generation, observation, and characterization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7175–7187 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B.-S. Shi, A. Tomita, “Generation of a pulsed polarization entangled photon pair using a Sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 013803 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Altepeter, E. Jeffrey, P. Kwiat, “Phase-compensated ultra-bright source of entangled photons,” Opt. Express 13, 8951–8959 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Li, H. Jing, M.-S. Zhan, “Optical generation of a hybrid entangled state via an entangling single-photon-added coherent state,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 2107–2113 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, A. Poppe, A. Zeilinger, “Three-color Sagnac source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Express 17, 23153–23159 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. R.-B. Jin, R. Shimizu, F. Kaneda, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, K. Edamatsu, “Entangled-state generation with an intrinsically pure single-photon source and a weak coherent source,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 012324 (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. F. Steinlechner, S. Ramelow, M. Jofre, M. Gilaberte, T. Jennewein, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, V. Pruneri, “Phase-stable source of polarization-entangled photons in a linear double-pass configuration,” Opt. Express 21, 11943–11951 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Kim, M. Fiorentino, F. N. C. Wong, “Phase-stable source of polarization-entangled photons using a polarization Sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 012316 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. F. Wong, J. Shapiro, T. Kim, “Efficient generation of polarization-entangled photons in a nonlinear crystal,” Laser Phys. 16, 1517–1524 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Fedrizzi, T. Herbst, A. Poppe, T. Jennewein, A. Zeilinger, “A wavelength-tunable fiber-coupled source of narrowband entangled photons,” Opt. Express 15, 15377–15386 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. O. Kuzucu, F. N. C. Wong, “Pulsed Sagnac source of narrow-band polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 032314 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Predojević, S. Grabher, G. Weihs, “Pulsed Sagnac source of polarization entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Express 20, 25022–25029 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, T. Herbst, M. Nespoli, R. Prevedel, T. Scheidl, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Jennewein, A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of entanglement over a high-loss free-space channel,” Nat. Phys. 5, 389–392 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. R. Prevedel, D. R. Hamel, R. Colbeck, K. Fisher, K. J. Resch, “Experimental investigation of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory and its application to witnessing entanglement,” Nat. Phys. 7, 757–761 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. L. Vermeyden, M. Bonsma, C. Noel, J. M. Donohue, E. Wolfe, K. J. Resch, “Experimental violation of three families of Bell’s inequalities,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 032105 (2013). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Ramelow, A. Mech, M. Giustina, S. Gröblacher, W. Wieczorek, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, A. Zeilinger, R. Ursin, “Highly efficient heralding of entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 21, 6707–6717 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. W. Nam, R. Ursin, A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Cao, H. Liang, J. Yin, H.-L. Yong, F. Zhou, Y.-P. Wu, J.-G. Ren, Y.-H. Li, G.-S. Pan, T. Yang, X. Ma, C.-Z. Peng, J.-W. Pan, “Entanglement-based quantum key distribution with biased basis choice via free space,” Opt. Express 21, 27260–27268 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. P. Grice, I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with a broadband pump,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627–1634 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. T. E. Keller, M. H. Rubin, “Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534–1541 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. F. König, F. N. C. Wong, “Extended phase matching of second-harmonic generation in periodically poled KTiOPO4 with zero group-velocity mismatch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1644–1646 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, I. A. Walmsley, “Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R.-B. Jin, J. Zhang, S. Ryosuke, M. Nobuyuki, M. Yasuyoshi, K. Hideo, E. Keiichi, “High-visibility nonclassical interference between intrinsically pure heralded single photons and photons from a weak coherent field,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 031805 (2011). [CrossRef]
  29. R.-B. Jin, R. Shimizu, K. Wakui, H. Benichi, M. Sasaki, “Widely tunable single photon source with high purity at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 21, 10659–10666 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. G. Evans, R. S. Bennink, W. P. Grice, T. S. Humble, J. Schaake, “Bright source of spectrally uncorrelated polarization-entangled photons with nearly single-mode emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253601 (2010). [CrossRef]
  31. A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013603 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. Lutz, P. Kolenderski, T. Jennewein, “Toward a downconversion source of positively spectrally correlated and decorrelated telecom photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 697–699 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Lutz, P. Kolenderski, T. Jennewein, “Demonstration of spectral correlation control in a source of polarization entangled photon pairs at telecom wavelength,” arXiv:1309.4040 (2013).
  34. B. J. Smith, P. Mahou, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, I. A. Walmsley, “Photon pair generation in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 23589–23602 (2009). [CrossRef]
  35. T. Gerrits, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, B. Calkins, A. Lita, S. Glancy, E. Knill, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, R. H. Hadfield, R. S. Bennink, W. P. Grice, S. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, T. Klapwijk, V. Zwiller, “Generation of degenerate, factorizable, pulsed squeezed light at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 19, 24434–24447 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R.-B. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063801 (2013). [CrossRef]
  37. N. Bruno, A. Martin, T. Guerreiro, B. Sanguinetti, R. T. Thew, “Pulsed source of spectrally uncorrelated and indistinguishable photons at telecom wavelengths,” arXiv:1403.6740 (2014).
  38. T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390–2394 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. K. Fradkin, A. Arie, A. Skliar, G. Rosenman, “Tunable midinfrared source by difference frequency generation in bulk periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 914–916 (1999). [CrossRef]
  40. A. Scherer, B. C. Sanders, W. Tittel, “Long-distance practical quantum key distribution by entanglement swapping,” Opt. Express 19, 3004–3018 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Y.-F. Huang, B.-H. Liu, L. Peng, Y.-H. Li, L. Li, C.-F. Li, G.-C. Guo, “Experimental generation of an eight-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state,” Nat. Commun. 2, 546 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photon. 6, 225–228 (2012). [CrossRef]
  43. J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, L. Chao-Yang, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, Żukowski Marek, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777–838 (2012). [CrossRef]
  44. http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/sagnacinterferometer/ .
  45. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, T. Hirotaka, W. Zhen, “High performance fiber-coupled nbtin superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-Mcmahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21, 10208–10214 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21, 27177–27184 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “NbN superconducting single-photon detectors prepared on single-crystal MgO substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconduct. 17, 285–288 (2007). [CrossRef]
  48. R.-B. Jin, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, M. Sasaki, “Efficient detection of a highly bright photon source using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” arXiv:1309.1221 (2013).
  49. D. R. Hamel, “Realization of novel entangled photon sources using periodically poled materials,” Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo (2010).
  50. J. F. Clauser, A. Shimony, “Bell’s theorem : experimental tests and implications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 41, 1881–1927 (1978). [CrossRef]
  51. J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1969). [CrossRef]
  52. D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001). [CrossRef]
  53. R. Jozsa, “Fidelity for mixed quantum states,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2315–2323 (1994). [CrossRef]
  54. W. K. Wootters, “Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245–2248 (1998). [CrossRef]
  55. I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, H. Sotobayashi, T. Kawanishi, I. Hosako, M. Tsuchiya, “Widely repetition-tunable 200 fs pulse source using a Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator and dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreasing fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1192–1194 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. J. T. Barreiro, N. K. Langford, N. A. Peters, P. G. Kwiat, “Generation of hyperentangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 260501 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited