OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 10 — May. 19, 2014
  • pp: 12013–12027

Third-order nonlinear optical response and optical limiting of colloidal carbon dots

Panagiotis Aloukos, Irini Papagiannouli, Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Radek Zboril, and Stelios Couris  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 10, pp. 12013-12027 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1728 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this work, the nonlinear optical response of some organophilic and hydrophilic carbon dots derived from gallate precursors is studied under 4 ns and 35 ps, visible (532 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) laser excitation conditions by the Z-scan technique. The prepared carbon dots were found to exhibit considerable nonlinear optical response in the visible, the organophilic ones exhibiting stronger response in the infrared and, in general, significantly larger response than their hydrophilic counterparts. In all cases, the corresponding nonlinear optical parameters have been determined. In particular, it was found that both carbon dots exhibited important negative nonlinear refractivity, under all excitation conditions tried, corresponding to self-defocusing, while negligible nonlinear absorption was found in the ps regime. Oppositely, both types of carbon dots were found to exhibit sizeable nonlinear absorption under ns excitation, indicating their potential for optical limiting applications. The present results are discussed and compared with other results concerning similar carbon based nanostructures reported in the literature.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: November 4, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 5, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 7, 2014
Published: May 12, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Panagiotis Aloukos, Irini Papagiannouli, Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Radek Zboril, and Stelios Couris, "Third-order nonlinear optical response and optical limiting of colloidal carbon dots," Opt. Express 22, 12013-12027 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012). [CrossRef]
  2. A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. N. Baker, G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(38), 6726–6744 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, A. G. Scobelev, M. S. Yur’ev, “The investigation of nonlinear optical limiting by aqueous suspensions of carbon nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 235(4-6), 445–452 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. K. M. Nashold, D. P. Walter, “Investigations of optical limiting mechanisms in carbon particle suspensions and fullerene solutions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(7), 1228–1237 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. I. M. Kislyakov, C. S. Yelleswarapu, “Nonlinear scattering studies of carbon black suspensions using photoacoustic Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151104 (2013). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, “Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(3), 467–470 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, M. S. Yur’ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc. 94(1), 86–91 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Li, Y. Liu, H. Yang, S. Qian, “Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2088–2090 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Myung, Y. Bae, A. J. Bard, “Effect of surface passivation on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1053–1055 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Impellizzeri, B. McCaughan, J. F. Callan, F. M. Raymo, “Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(4), 2276–2283 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. M. Gong, X.-H. Wang, Y.-M. Du, Q.-Q. Wang, “Optical nonlinear absorption and refraction of CdS and CdS-Ag core-shell quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(2), 024707 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012). [CrossRef]
  25. N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).
  26. N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).
  27. A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000). [CrossRef]
  30. E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001). [CrossRef]
  31. N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Nevejina-Sturhan, O. Werhahn, U. Siegner, “Low-threshold high-dynamic-range optical limiter for ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(6), 553–557 (2002). [CrossRef]
  33. W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000). [CrossRef]
  34. L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, S. Sahu, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of graphene versus other carbon nanomaterials,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(1), 171–180 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).
  36. N. Liaros, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Fluoro-graphene: nonlinear optical properties,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21027–21038 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. T. Frederick, V. A. Amin, E. A. Weiss, “Optical properties of strongly coupled quantum dot−ligand systems,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(4), 634–640 (2013). [CrossRef]
  38. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, “D. J. Hagan E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996). [CrossRef]
  39. F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited