OSA's Digital Library

Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 22, Iss. S3 — May. 5, 2014
  • pp: A790–A799

Reducing the efficiency droop by lateral carrier confinement in InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorods

Chentian Shi, Chunfeng Zhang, Fan Yang, Min Joo Park, Joon Seop Kwak, Sukkoo Jung, Yoon-Ho Choi, Xiaoyong Wang, and Min Xiao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue S3, pp. A790-A799 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.00A790


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1230 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Efficiency droop is a major obstacle facing high-power application of InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, we report the suppression of efficiency droop induced by the process of density-activated defect recombination in nanorod structures of a-plane InGaN/GaN QWs. In the high carrier density regime, the retained emission efficiency in a dry-etched nanorod sample is observed to be over two times higher than that in its parent QW sample. We further argue that such improvement is a net effect that the lateral carrier confinement overcomes the increased surface trapping introduced during fabrication.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(300.6500) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, time-resolved

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: November 22, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 4, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 26, 2014
Published: April 3, 2014

Citation
Chentian Shi, Chunfeng Zhang, Fan Yang, Min Joo Park, Joon Seop Kwak, Sukkoo Jung, Yoon-Ho Choi, Xiaoyong Wang, and Min Xiao, "Reducing the efficiency droop by lateral carrier confinement in InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorods," Opt. Express 22, A790-A799 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-S3-A790


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond--a decade progress review,” Opt. Express21(S3Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. Smart, “New clues to LEDs' efficiency droop,” Phys. Today66(7), 12–14 (2013). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Cho, E. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(3), 408–421 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett.110(17), 177406 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Oezguer, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171113 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121107 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. X. Li, X. Ni, J. Lee, M. Wu, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, T. Paskova, G. Mulholland, and K. R. Evans, “Efficiency retention at high current injection levels in m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(12), 121103 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. C.-H. Chiu, D.-W. Lin, C.-C. Lin, Z.-Y. Li, W.-T. Chang, H.-W. Hsu, H.-C. Kuo, T.-C. Lu, S.-C. Wang, W.-T. Liao, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “c,” Appl. Phys. Exp. 4 (2011).
  14. H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Akyol, D. N. Nath, S. Krishnamoorthy, P. S. Park, and S. Rajan, “Suppression of electron overflow and efficiency droop in N-polar GaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111118 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Vaxenburg, E. Lifshitz, and A. Efros, “Suppression of Auger-stimulated efficiency droop in nitride-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(3), 031120 (2013). [CrossRef]
  17. W. Guo, M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, and J. Heo, “Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1434–1438 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221106 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Temperature-dependence of the internal efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181127 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. F. Yang, C. Zhang, C. Shi, M. Joo Park, J. Seop Kwak, S. Jung, Y.-H. Choi, X. Wu, X. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Defect recombination induced by density-activated carrier diffusion in nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(12), 123506 (2013). [CrossRef]
  21. B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, J. Xu, H. Zhang, J. Zhang, F. Xue, and M. Xiao, “The Impact of Carrier Transport Confinement on the Energy Transfer Between InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Nanorods and Colloidal Nanocrystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(15), 3146–3152 (2012). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Xiao, Y. Wang, Z. Hua, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and M. Xiao, “Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules,” Nat. Commun.3, 1170 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater.5(10), 810–816 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Danhof, H. M. Solowan, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, D. Schiavon, T. Meyer, and M. Peter, “Lateral charge carrier diffusion in InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solid B249(3), 480–484 (2012). [CrossRef]
  25. S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science281(5379), 956–961 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. B. Jiang, C. Zhang, X. Wang, F. Xue, M. J. Park, J. S. Kwak, and M. Xiao, “Effects of reduced exciton diffusion in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” Opt. Express20(12), 13478–13487 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowire Light Emitting Diodes Grown on (001) Silicon by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3355–3359 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. M. Kim, Y. H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004). [CrossRef]
  29. Y. R. Wu, C. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1226–1233 (2009). [CrossRef]
  30. R. Smith, B. Liu, J. Bai, and T. Wang, “Hybrid III-Nitride/Organic Semiconductor Nanostructure with High Efficiency Nonradiative Energy Transfer for White Light Emitters,” Nano Lett.13(7), 3042–3047 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganiere, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(23), 232109 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(16), 2346–2348 (1997). [CrossRef]
  33. J. Danhof, U. T. Schwarz, A. Kaneta, and Y. Kawakami, “Time-of-flight measurements of charge carrier diffusion in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B84(3), 035324 (2011). [CrossRef]
  34. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.69(27), 4188–4190 (1996). [CrossRef]
  35. S. Hammersley, D. Watson-Parris, P. Dawson, M. J. Godfrey, T. J. Badcock, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “The consequences of high injected carrier densities on carrier localization and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.111(8), 083512 (2012). [CrossRef]
  36. M. J. Davies, T. J. Badcock, P. Dawson, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “High excitation carrier density recombination dynamics of InGaN/GaNquantum well structures: Possible relevance to efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(2), 022106 (2013). [CrossRef]
  37. S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys.92(8), 4441–4448 (2002). [CrossRef]
  38. S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, M. H. Mao, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Multiple-component photoluminescence decay caused by carrier transport in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with indium aggregation structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(23), 4375–4377 (2002). [CrossRef]
  39. Q. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(25), 25528–25534 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. C. C. S. Chan, B. P. L. Reid, R. A. Taylor, Y. Zhuang, P. A. Shields, D. W. E. Allsopp, and W. Jia, “Optical studies of the surface effects from the luminescence of single GaN/InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes fabricated on a wafer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(11), 111906 (2013). [CrossRef]
  41. H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes: Achievements and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.57(1), 88–100 (2010). [CrossRef]
  42. D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Development of Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN/GaN Visible Light-Emitting Diodes,” MRS Bull.34(05), 318–323 (2009). [CrossRef]
  43. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997). [CrossRef]
  44. T. Onuma, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Localized exciton dynamics in nonpolar (1120) InxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN templates prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151918 (2005). [CrossRef]
  45. E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, J. H. Choi, S. J. Lee, K. H. Baik, I. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, S. M. Hwang, and H. V. Demir, “Opposite carrier dynamics and optical absorption characteristics under external electric field in nonpolar vs. polar InGaN/GaN based quantum heterostructures,” Opt. Express19(6), 5442–5450 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. G. You, W. Guo, C. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, R. Henderson, and J. Xu, “Excitation dependent two-component spontaneous emission and ultrafast amplified spontaneous emission in dislocation-free InGaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(9), 091105 (2013). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited