OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 11 — Jun. 2, 2014
  • pp: 13625–13633

Picosecond supercontinuum light source for stroboscopic white-light interferometry with freely adjustable pulse repetition rate

Steffen Novotny, Vasuki Durairaj, Igor Shavrin, Lauri Lipiäinen, Kimmo Kokkonen, Matti Kaivola, and Hanne Ludvigsen  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 11, pp. 13625-13633 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1256 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a picosecond supercontinuum light source designed for stroboscopic white-light interferometry. This source offers a potential for high-resolution characterization of vibrational fields in electromechanical components with frequencies up to the GHz range. The light source concept combines a gain-switched laser diode, the output of which is amplified in a two-stage fiber amplifier, with supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber. Implemented in our white-light interferometer setup, optical pulses with optimized spectral properties and below 310 ps duration are used for stroboscopic illumination at freely adjustable repetition rates. The performance of the source is demonstrated by characterizing the surface vibration field of a square-plate silicon MEMS resonator at 3.37 MHz. A minimum detectable vibration amplitude of less than 100 pm is reached.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(110.3175) Imaging systems : Interferometric imaging
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: April 16, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 22, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 23, 2014
Published: May 29, 2014

Steffen Novotny, Vasuki Durairaj, Igor Shavrin, Lauri Lipiäinen, Kimmo Kokkonen, Matti Kaivola, and Hanne Ludvigsen, "Picosecond supercontinuum light source for stroboscopic white-light interferometry with freely adjustable pulse repetition rate," Opt. Express 22, 13625-13633 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. S. Lee, T. C. Strand, “Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3784–3788 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, J. K. Gimzewski, “Performance advances in interferometric optical profilers for imaging and testing,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064001 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. de Groot, L. L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical-scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fleischer, R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Theoretical limits of scanning white-light interferometry signal evaluation algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2815–2820 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “Determination of fringe order in white-light interference microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4571–4578 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Bosseboeuf, S. Petitgrand, “Characterization of the static and dynamic behaviour of M(O)EMS by optical techniques: status and trends,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23–S33 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Petitgrand, A. Bosseboeuf, “Simultaneous mapping of phase and amplitude of MEMS vibrations by microscopic interferometry with stroboscopic illumination,” Proc. SPIE 5145, 33–44 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. K. K. Chen, J. H. V. Price, S.-U. Alam, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, “Polarisation maintaining 100W Yb-fiber MOPA producing μJ pulses tunable in duration from 1 to 21 ps,” Opt. Express 18, 14385–14394 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Kanzelmeyer, H. Sayinc, T. Theeg, M. Frede, J. Neumann, D. Kracht, “All-fiber based amplification of 40 ps pulses from a gain-switched laser diode,” Opt. Express 19, 1854–1859 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2μm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1615–1617 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Moon, D. Y. Kim, “Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum with 1550-nm amplified diode-laser pulses and a dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 270–278 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, C. Codemard, D. Ghosh, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013). [CrossRef]
  22. P.-A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, C. Froehly, P. Nérin, “White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system,” Opt. Express 12, 4366–4371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.
  25. L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012). [CrossRef]
  26. K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited