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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 14 — Jul. 14, 2014
  • pp: 17573–17589

Architecture and applications of a high resolution gated SPAD image sensor

Samuel Burri, Yuki Maruyama, Xavier Michalet, Francesco Regazzoni, Claudio Bruschini, and Edoardo Charbon  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 14, pp. 17573-17589 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.017573


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Abstract

We present the architecture and three applications of the largest resolution image sensor based on single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) published to date. The sensor, fabricated in a high-voltage CMOS process, has a resolution of 512 × 128 pixels and a pitch of 24 μm. The fill-factor of 5% can be increased to 30% with the use of microlenses. For precise control of the exposure and for time-resolved imaging, we use fast global gating signals to define exposure windows as small as 4 ns. The uniformity of the gate edges location is ∼140 ps (FWHM) over the whole array, while in-pixel digital counting enables frame rates as high as 156 kfps. Currently, our camera is used as a highly sensitive sensor with high temporal resolution, for applications ranging from fluorescence lifetime measurements to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and generation of true random numbers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy
(230.5160) Optical devices : Photodetectors
(100.0118) Image processing : Imaging ultrafast phenomena

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: April 9, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 27, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: June 16, 2014
Published: July 11, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Samuel Burri, Yuki Maruyama, Xavier Michalet, Francesco Regazzoni, Claudio Bruschini, and Edoardo Charbon, "Architecture and applications of a high resolution gated SPAD image sensor," Opt. Express 22, 17573-17589 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-14-17573


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