OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 15 — Jul. 28, 2014
  • pp: 18056–18071

Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights

Yandan Lin, Yihong Liu, Yaojie Sun, Xiaoyan Zhu, Jushui Lai, and Ingrid Heynderickx  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 15, pp. 18056-18071 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1423 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer (ω) and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight (θ). Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(330.5020) Vision, color, and visual optics : Perception psychology
(220.2945) Optical design and fabrication : Illumination design
(330.7326) Vision, color, and visual optics : Visual optics, modeling

ToC Category:
Vision, Color, and Visual Optics

Original Manuscript: May 6, 2014
Revised Manuscript: June 14, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: June 16, 2014
Published: July 18, 2014

Yandan Lin, Yihong Liu, Yaojie Sun, Xiaoyan Zhu, Jushui Lai, and Ingrid Heynderickx, "Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights," Opt. Express 22, 18056-18071 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. Sweater-Hickcox, N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, and J. P. Freyssinier, “Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–12 (2012).
  2. J. F. Barraza and E. M. Colombo, “Transient glare: its effect on the lower threshold of motion,” Opt. Express 7(4), 172–177 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. B. Gibbons and C. J. Edwards, “A review of disability and discomfort glare research and future direction” presented at the 18th Biennial TRB Visibility Symposium, College Station TX, United States, 17–19 April.2007.
  4. M. S. Rea, IESNA Lighting Handbook: Reference and Application (Illuminating Engineering Society, 2000).
  5. P. Sassi, Strategies for Sustainable Architecture (Taylor & Francis, 2006), Chap.3.
  6. W. S. Stiles, “Discussion on disability glare” presented at the CIE meeting, Scheveningen, The Hague, 1939.
  7. J. J. Vos, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(6), 363–370 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Fisher, “Discomfort glare in interiors” presented at the First International Symposium on Glare, Orlando, Florida, New York, 24–25 Oct. 1991.
  9. P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, “Discomfort glare and the lighting of buildings,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 15, 39–44 (1950).
  10. S. K. Guth, “A method for the evaluation of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 58, 351–364 (1963).
  11. J. B. deBoer and D. A. Schreuder, “Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 32, 117–135 (1967).
  12. H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. T. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 6(2), 79–88 (1974). [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. Bennett, “Discomfort glare: roadways (I): four experiments on multiple sources” in Engineering Experiment Station Special Report 129 (Kansas State University, Manhattan, 1979).
  14. C. A. Bennett, “Discomfort glare: dynamic roadway lighting parameter studies” in Engineering Experiment Station Special Report 153 (Kansas State University, Manhattan, 1983).
  15. C. A. Bennett, R. M. Rubison, and B. C. Ramaro, “Discomfort glare: luminance range-limited replication study of angularly small sources,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 14(1), 396–420 (1984). [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Flannagan, D. J. Weintraub, and M. Sivak, “Context effects on discomfort glare: task and stimulus factors” in Transportation Research Institute Report UMTRI-90–35(The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990).
  17. A. W. Gellatly and D. J. Weintraub, “User reconfiguration of the deBoer rating scale for discomfort glare” in Transportation Research Institute Report UMTRI-90–20 (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990).
  18. M. Rubiño, A. Cruz, J. A. Garcia, and E. Hita, “Discomfort glare indices: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 33(34), 8001–8008 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(3), 225–242 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. J. D. Bullough, K. Sweater-Hickcox, and N. Narendran, “A method for estimating discomfort glare from exterior lighting system,” Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems and Technologies 9, 1–7 (2011).
  21. W. Kim and J. T. Kim, “Effect of background luminance on discomfort glare in relation to the glare source size,” Indoor Built Environ. 19(1), 175–183 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. J. D. Bullough and K. Sweater-Hickcox, “Interactions among light source luminance, illuminance and size on discomfort glare,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars-Mech. Syst. 5, 199–202 (2012).
  23. I. J. Murray, S. Plainis, and D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Lighting Res. Tech. 34(3), 231–242 (2002). [CrossRef]
  24. P. R. Boyce, Human Factors in Lighting (Taylor & Francis, 2002), Chap. 5.
  25. C. E. Waters, R. G. Mistrick, and C. A. Bermecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24(2), 73–85 (1995). [CrossRef]
  26. T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. M. L. Eble-Hankins and C. E. Waters, “Subjective impression of discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” Leukos. 6, 51–77 (2010).
  28. M. Ayama, T. Tashiroi, S. Kawanobe, T. Kimura-Minoda, S. Kohko, and T. Ishikawa, “Discomfort glare of white LED sources of different spatial arrangements” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Toward a New Century of Light, (Academic, Paris, 2013), pp. 119–122.
  29. H. Higashi, S. Koga, and T. Kotani, “The development of evaluation for discomfort glare in LED lighting of indoor work place: the effect of the luminance distribution of luminous parts on subjective evaluation” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Toward a New Century of Light, (Academic, Paris, 2013), pp. 648–656.
  30. S. Koga, H. Higashi, and T. Kotani, “The development of evaluation of discomfort glare in LED lighting of indoor work place: the modification of G-classification using luminance distribution of luminous parts” in Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Toward a New Century of Light, (Academic, Paris, 2013), pp. 657–662.
  31. M. Sivak, B. Schoettle, T. Mionda, and M. J. Flannagan, “Blue content of LED headlamps and discomfort glare” in Transportation Research Institute Report UMTRI-2005–2(The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2005).
  32. J. Fekete, C. Sik-Lányi, and J. Schanda, “Spectral discomfort glare sensitivity investigations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(2), 182–187 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Kimura-Minoda and M. Ayama, “Evaluation of discomfort glare from colour LEDs and its correlation with individual variations in brightness sensitivity,” Color Res. Appl. 36(4), 286–294 (2011). [CrossRef]
  34. P. I. Bodrogi, N. A. Wolf, and T. Q. Khanh, “Spectral and additivity of discomfort glare under street and automotive lighting conditions,” Light Eng. 20, 66–71 (2012).
  35. M. Wei, K. W. Houser, B. Orland, D. H. Lang, N. Ram, M. J. Sliwinski, M. Bose. “Field study of office worker responses to fluorescent lighting of different CCT and lumen output” J. Environ. Psychol. published online (May 15, 2014), DOI: . [CrossRef]
  36. L. Geerdinck, “Glare perception in terms of acceptance and comfort” in Graduation Report (Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, 2012).
  37. W. M. Collins, “The determination of the minimum identifiable glare sensation interval,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 27, 27–34 (1962).
  38. S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 2-Brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 39(3), 233–249 (2007). [CrossRef]
  39. S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Predicting lamp spectrum effects at mesopic levels. Part 1: Spatial brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(2), 143–157 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited