OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 17 — Aug. 25, 2014
  • pp: 20038–20044

High speed optical phased array using high contrast grating all-pass filters

Weijian Yang, Tianbo Sun, Yi Rao, Mischa Megens, Trevor Chan, Byung-Wook Yoo, David A. Horsley, Ming C. Wu, and Connie J. Chang-Hasnain  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 17, pp. 20038-20044 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1803 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report a high speed 8x8 optical phased array using tunable 1550 nm all-pass filters with ultrathin high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the microelectromechanical-actuated top reflectors. The all-pass filter design enables a highly efficient phase tuning (1.7 π) with a small actuation voltage (10 V) and actuation displacement of the HCG (50 nm). The microelectromechanical HCG structure facilitates a high phase tuning speed >0.5 MHz. Beam steering is experimentally demonstrated with the optical phased array.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(110.5100) Imaging systems : Phased-array imaging systems
(230.4685) Optical devices : Optical microelectromechanical devices

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: April 14, 2014
Revised Manuscript: June 6, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: July 11, 2014
Published: August 12, 2014

Weijian Yang, Tianbo Sun, Yi Rao, Mischa Megens, Trevor Chan, Byung-Wook Yoo, David A. Horsley, Ming C. Wu, and Connie J. Chang-Hasnain, "High speed optical phased array using high contrast grating all-pass filters," Opt. Express 22, 20038-20044 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. U. Krishnamoorthy, K. Li, K. Yu, D. Lee, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, “Dual-mode micromirrors for optical phased array applications,” Sensor Actuat. A-Phys. 97–98, 21–26 (2002).
  2. P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86(8), 1687–1704 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Wang, G. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, J. L. West, P. J. Bos, and P. F. McManamon, “Stressed liquid-crystal optical phased array for fast tip-tilt wavefront correction,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7754–7759 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Engström, M. J. O’Callaghan, C. Walker, and M. A. Handschy, “Fast beam steering with a ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical phased array,” Appl. Opt. 48(9), 1721–1726 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Jarrahi, R. F. W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, and T. H. Lee, “Optical switching based on high-speed phased array optical beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 014106 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-dimensional free-space beam steering with an optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21595–21604 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultra-broadband mirror using low index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 4(3), 379–440 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. X. Gu, A. Imamura, and F. Koyama, “Wavelength trimming of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high-contrast subwavelength grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(10R), 100207 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Sciancalepore, B. B. Bakir, X. Letartre, J. Harduin, N. Olivier, C. Seassal, J.-M. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “CMOS-compatible ultra-compact 1.55- μ m emitting VCSELs using double photonic crystal mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 455–457 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Ansbaek, I.-S. Chung, E. S. Semenova, and K. Yvind, “1060-nm tunable monolithic high index contrast subwavelength grating VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 365–367 (2013). [CrossRef]
  15. W. Yang, J. Ferrara, K. Grutter, A. Yeh, C. Chase, Y. Yue, A. E. Willner, M. Wu, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Low loss hollow-core waveguide on a silicon substrate,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 23–29 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. B.-W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “Optical phased array using high contrast gratings for two dimensional beamforming and beamsteering,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12238–12248 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. K. Madsen and G. Lenz, “Optical all-pass filters for phase response design with applications for dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(7), 994–996 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Lenz and C. K. Madsen, “General optical all-pass filter structures for dispersion control in WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1248–1254 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. C. K. Madsen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Ford, K. W. Goossen, T. N. Nielsen, and G. Lenz, “A tunable dispersion compensating MEMS all-pass filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 651–653 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. N. C. Singer and W. P. Seering, “Preshaping command inputs to reduce system vibration,” ASME. J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 112(1), 76–82 (1990). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Vaughan, A. Yano, and W. Singhose, “Robust negative input shapers for vibration suppression,” ASME. J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 131(3), 031014 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. T. K. Chan, M. Megens, B.-W. Yoo, J. Wyras, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. C. Wu, and D. A. Horsley, “Optical beamsteering using an 8 × 8 MEMS phased array with closed-loop interferometric phase control,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2807–2815 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Boutami, B. B. Bakir, H. Hattori, X. Letartre, J.-L. Leclercq, P. Rojo-Romeo, M. Garrigues, C. Seassal, and P. Viktorovitch, “Broadband and compact 2-D photonic crystal reflectors with controllable polarization dependence,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 835–837 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. H. Yang, D. Zhao, J.-H. Seo, S. Chuwongin, S. Kim, J. A. Rogers, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Broadband membrane reflectors on glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 476–478 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited